circa 1100-1300: The Premyslides

Wendschlag is a known *) Pommeranian name, a form of Wenzlaff, from the
Slav personal name Wenceslaw, German form Wenzel. Parallel to the latter
there is a different name Menzel - therefore I don't think Mentschlaff
and Wendschlag to be different forms of one name, but different names.

Boleslav II - prince (967 - 999

VENDELA är ett tyskt namn som använts i Sverige sedan 1400-talet. Wendel betyder vandal. Populärt namn på 1990-talet. Närbesläktade namn är t.ex. Venny.
VENTSEL är slavisk kortform av Wenceslaw.

Libice nad Cidlinou is connected with the house of Slavnikovci, from which descended famous bishop - Saint Vojtech (Adalbert) The noble family was slaughtered during the contest for power with the dynasty of Premyslides in 995. Area of the original Slavnikovci´s fortification is considerable archaeological place of interest

Stammsitz der Slavnikiden

Die Residenz der slavnikidischen Fürsten, der Burgwall Libice, war eine der frühesten Anlagen ihrer Art in Böhmen. Sie erstreckte sich auf zwei Terrasseninseln am Zusammenfluss von Elbe und Cidlina, die um 800 mit einer steinverblendeten Holz-Erde-Mauer und einem Innengraben befestigt wurden. Im 10. Jh. wurde diese Befestigung durch eine mächtigere Wehranlage ersetzt. Die Eroberung von Libice durch die Premysliden hinterließ 995 Brand- und Zerstörungsspuren, besonders auf der Westseite, von wo aus der Angriff geführt wurde. Bereits um 900 befand sich in der Vorburg eine einschiffige Kirche im ottonischen Stil. Südlich dieses Wahrzeichens der slavnikidischen Fürstenresidenz stand ein gezimmerter Fürstenpalast mit Mörtelfußboden im Erdgeschoss. Die Familiengrabstätte der Slavnikiden schloss sich an das südliche Querschiff der Kirche an. Kirche und Palast haben die Premysliden geplündert, nachdem sie die Burg erobert hatten. Im 11. und 12. Jh. verloren die Libicer Befestigungsanlagen ihre Wehrhaftigkeit: Die Trümmer der 995 zerstörten steinernen Mauerverblendung blieben an Ort und Stelle. Der mächtige Innengraben am östlichen Rand der Vorburg diente seit dem 11. Jh. als Müllkippe und in den Zwanzigerjahren des 13. Jh. wurde Libice in schriftlichen Quellen nur noch als »Dorf im Besitz des Prager St. Georgsklosters« erwähnt.



The first sign of growth among the Slavs was among the Czechs. These Slavic peoples settled in Bohemia in the 500s, and because of their location became a target from Germans, Poles, and Hungarians. In addition, with Bohemia being part of the Roman Empire, the Germans greatly influenced the Czechs, and unfortunately they were put into a very humiliating status as a Kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire. However, with the emersion of the Czech royal family, the Premyslides, Bohemia went through a period of great development and growth, and the kingdom expanded it’s influence and prestige in the Empire.

The first King to greatly expand
Bohemia was Premysl Oktar I, who took advantage of the struggles for the German throne after Henry VI’s death. The royal authority in the Holy Roman Empire was weakening for the Germans, and this greatened Bohemia’s power. Premysl, knowing that the Czechs were part of the Holy Roman Empire, did what everyone else did at this time; take advantage and expand, despite ethnic differences.

Premysl’s fortune came when his brother
Vladislav resigned the Bohemian throne to him, but nonetheless continued to support Premysl as a margrave of Moravia. Premysl took advantage of his right as “Kurfürsten” to take part in the election of the Holy Roman Empire. He also had the assistance of his other brother, Adalbert, who was the Archbishop of Salzburg and had a say in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. Premysl was trying to get Philip of Swabia (an ally of the Czechs) on the throne. If he won, Premysl would promise to defend Philip from his rival Otto IV, and in return, Philip would confirm the Premyslide dynasty in the name of himself and all his successors, as well as confirm the Bohemian borders. Though Philip won the election as Emperor, Premysl knew, that Pope Innocent III supported Otto as Emperor, and that would put a burden on Premysl’s plan, especially because the Papacy had reason to intervene in Bohemian affairs- Premysl had several children by his wife Adelta, from the royal Weitten family. However, Premysl had the Bishop of Prague annul the marriage, so that he could marry Constance of Hungary, claiming that Adelta was being unfaithful. Adelta immediately complained to the Roman Curia.

When Innocent III realized that
Bohemia was a very important area of the Empire, he offered Premysl to join the party of Otto and attain a royal title by somebody who was approvedby the pope, and in addition make Prague an Archdiocese. With much hesitation Premysl transferred his alliances to Otto IV. However, the Pope ended up not giving Prague an Archdiocese, though he did canonize the popular Czech Saint Procopius. When Premysl made this alliance, Philip threatened to put a new person on the Bohemian throne. When Premysl came back to his old party, Philip and Premysl sealed their alliance by pledging their infant children in marriage.

Disappointed, the Pope tried vainly to regain Premysl as his candidacy to the imperial throne. Despite Philip’s assassination in 1208, Premysl continued his loyalty to Philip’s royal family, the Hohenstaufens, which the Pope discouraged. To the benefit of Premysl, Otto was excommunicated, taking away the threat from the Curia. Working out perfectly, Premysl was first to support Innocent’s Hohenstaufen candidate, Frederick II.
Frederick in return recognized Philip’s privileges to Premysl and dispensed him and his nobles from attending the Reichstag, with the exception of Bamberg, Nurnberg, and Merseberg, and the areas near Bohemia. Premysl was also asked to bring 300 Knights for Frederick’s coronation in Italy, in addition to being given the option of paying 300 silver marks. Moravia united with Bohemia in the process, and Premysl displayed his son Wenceslas to the Czech nobles in hopes of him being his successor. This was the starting point of Czech growth and development in Bohemia.

The next great success of Premysl was the betrothal of his saint-daughter Agnes to
Frederick’s son Henry, but it caused problems; Engelbert, Archbishop of Cologne, disagreed with the betrothal. Engelbert was the de facto ruler of Germany, in the name of the young king. Even though Frederick wanted to keep a good relationship with France, Engelbert’s influence over Frederick prompted to break that relationship by allying with the English, on account of Cologne’s traditional jealousy of France. Engelbert proposed a marriage between Margaret, daughter of Leopold of Babenburg, and King Henry III of England. In addition, he proposed a separate marriage between King Henry’s youngest sister, Isabella, and Frederick’s son, Henry, breaking the betrothal of him and Agnes. Engelbert thought he outwitted Premysl, but they both were surprised to find the Duke of Austria agreeing to have his daughter, Margaret, marry Frederick’s son, ruining Engelbert’s plan. War broke out between Bohemia and Austria, that ended up giving the Czechs no satisfaction. Interestingly enough, Premysl was willing to negotiate with the Plantagenians to organize a marriage between Agnes and Henry. The discussions quieted down to prevent a conflict with Frederick, but even when they opened up again, London and Prague never agreed to anything.

New problems arose when the Pope threatened to excommunicate
Frederick, as he continuously delayed his part in the third crusade. The Pope proposed Otto of Brunswick as a candidate for emperor, but that threatened to resurrect feuds between the Guelfs and Ghibellines. Despite the attacks on Frederick, Premysl remained loyal to him. However, everything came back together when Otto of Brunswick abandoned his candidature, and marriage negotiations between London and Prague ended. On December 15th, 1230, Premysl died, and was succeeded by his son Wenceslas. Wenceslas would permanently end Austria’s plans to stop Bohemia’s growth.

Frederick’s son, King Henry, sorely regretted having marrying the Austrian Duke’s daughter, Margaret. In addition to her being old enough to be his mother, he couldn’t afford to pay her dowry. In addition, he fell in love with the Czech princess Agnes. He was also impatient of getting into power, and his relations with his father went from dreadful to worse. Louis, Duke of Bavaria, whose wife was a Czech princess, had gotten favor with Henry, and tried to get him to abandon his alliance with the Babenburgs (Frederick II’s family) and instead ally with the Premyslides. In 1231 Henry openly admitted his intention of divorcing Margaret and marrying Agnes. However, the German princes, afraid of all the political problems that would arise from this, were able to persuade Henry to keep his alliance with the Babenburgs and submit to his father. Despite Wenceslas and Agnes’ appreciation for Henry’s romance, they wisely did not get involved in the situation. Agnes, disappointed with earthly love, joined the Order of Saint Clare (Franciscans) and entered a convent that she founded in Prague. Henry’s plot proved unsuccessful, and the entire situation left no benefit to anyone. However, Austria’s plans to stop Czech growth continued, even after the death of the Duke of Austria, Leopold.

The new Duke of Austria, Frederick, was even worst than the former. He tried to overthrow Wenceslas by making an alliance with Wenceslas’ own brother, Premysl II.
Frederick was successful until he fell ill with a disease that kept him out of power. During that time, Wenceslas made an alliance with the Hungarian king, Andrew II. Andrew and Wenceslas set out in 1235 to war on the Austrian lands. To make matters worse for the Austrian duke, the emperor Frederick II suspected the duke of having a play in Henry’s plot. The angered emperor banished the duke, and stripped him of his duchy and crown. After the emperor forgave Frederick, Bohemia and Austria continued their conflicts, and they only came to an agreement when the Mongols threatened Europe, with Wenceslas’ son Vladislav and Frederick’s niece Gertrude agreeing to an engagement.

After the Mongols had devastated
Moravia and Austria (Bohemia was spared), the conflicts even then continued, but they could have almost gotten worse. After the death of emperor Frederick II’s English wife, he sought to marry Gertrude, with an eye on Austrian lands and to promote the Babenburgs. He even threatened Bohemia by talking about making Austria a kingdom. Fortunately for Wenceslas, the emperor died in a battle against the Hungarians (1246). Though Vladislav and Gertrude did marry, Vladislav died merely months after. The devastated Wenceslas got more disappointment when a civil war broke out in Bohemia, where nobles were against Wenceslas’ pro-curialist policies, and the war lasted until 1250. After the death of Gertrude’s second husband, Austria was in dire need of a new Duke, and they elected Wenceslas’ brother, Premysl. He secured his rule by marring Margaret of Austria (divorced now from Henry Babenburg), who although much older than he and seriously considering retiring to a convent, nonetheless kept him in power.

This period of Slavic history is extremely important, as it preserved Slavic influence in central
Europe. In addition, this period strengthened the Bohemian dynasties, though many conflicts arose because of this.


Wendschlag is a known *) Pommeranian name, a form of Wenzlaff, from the
Slav personal name Wenceslaw, German form Wenzel. Parallel to the latter
there is a different name Menzel - therefore I don't think Mentschlaff
and Wendschlag to be different forms of one name, but different names.

Wenceslaw Wienczyslaw Wieceslaw


'ventie' more/greater + glory


Wieslaw Wiesiek Wiesiulek

'vele' great + glory

Wanda Vanda


From “Wend3

Libice nad Cidlinou is connected with the house of Slavnikovci, from which descended famous bishop - Saint Vojtech (Adalbert) The noble family was slaughtered during the contest for power with the dynasty of Premyslides in 995. Area of the original Slavnikovci´s fortification is considerable archaeological place of interest. There is staying the Church of Saint Vojtech – gothic building on the place of original Romanesque church. In 1836 it was rebuilt in the up-to-date pseudo-renaissance form.
    In princely house Sadska took place Diets in years 1110, 1138 and 1189. There was later founded a chapter there. Sadska became the town in 1562 and gained the city arms. Today is possible to find in Sadska the Church of Saint Apolinar (Apollinaris). Out of its original gothic building remains only a presbyter and rib vault. Today appearance has the church, after rebuilding, since 1750. Baroque Chapel of the Dolorous Virgin Mary with a prismatic tower and octagonal belfry was built according the drawing of K.I. Dienzenhofer.

Sous son règne, l'Etat tchèque a élargi sans précédent ses frontières: la dynastie des Premyslides régnait non seulement en Bohême et en Moravie, mais elle a dominé aussi l'ouest de l'actuelle Slovaquie, les parties sud de la Pologne, dont surtout la Silésie et la Cracovie, et les territoires est jusqu'aux frontières de la Russie kiévienne. L'Etat tchèque jouissait alors d'une grande stabilité et prospérité. Sous le règne de Boleslav II, Prague est devenu aussi le siège du premier évêché tchèque.

C'était, en effet, Boleslav II qui a tout fait pour que Venceslas, assassiné par son père Boleslav 1er, devienne patron des pays tchèques. Si le règne des deux princes Boleslav s'est inscrit dans l'histoire comme la période de l'extension sans précédent du pouvoir des Premyslides loin à l'est, il a été, dans le même temps, une période marquée par l'élimination impitoyable des opposants... Comme on le sait, l'autorité de Boleslav II à l'intérieur du pays ne s'est consolidée qu'après l'extermination physique, en 995, de la puissante famille des Slavnik, dont les membres refusaient de se plier au pouvoir central.

Boleslav II - prince (967 - 999)
Vendela kortform av tyska namn på Wendel-.

VENDELA är ett tyskt namn som använts i Sverige sedan 1400-talet.

Wendel betyder vandal. le wendel signifie la vallée d'habitude

 Populärt namn på 1990-talet. Närbesläktade namn är t.ex. Venny.
VENTSEL är slavisk kortform av Wenceslaw.
 VERNIK är en dimunitiv form av Verner
Par Jaroslava Gissübelova




Herkunft des Namens Wen(t)z(e)l


Im Deutschen Namenslexikon von Hans Bahlow wird der Ursprung des Namen in Sachsen, Schlesien, Böhmen, Bayern und Österreich definiert. Wen(t)zel ist die beliebteste deutsche (Kurz-) Koseform zum slawischen Personennamen Wenceslaw (Wenczlaw). Wojciech

Der heilige Wenzeslaus war Schutzpatron Böhmens.

Urkundliche Erwähnungen;

Wenczel Schickentanz, 1365 Brünn (Brno)

Wenczlab Speiser, 1414 Mähren

Wenczusch, 1345 Breslau

Wanzel ist Mundartform une manière locale de dire

Wenzko, Venceke, Venzlaus, pommerscher Ritter um 1260


Ob die Ratzersdorfer Wenz(e)l´s Auswanderer aus Bayern sind  oder aus Österreich stammen, konnte ich nocht nicht klären. Sicher ist, dass auch in den umliegenden, anderen deutschen Gemeinden der Name Wenzel häufig vorkommt:


Geburten-Index Moischdorf-Tartschendorf

1861 Mathias Wenzel

1863 Maria Wenzel

1864 Theresia Wenzel

1867 Michael Wenzel

1870 Elisabeth Wenzel


In Miserd, Dunajska Luzna:

Wenzel Kristoff, gestorben 14.08.1908, 74 Jahre, Tageslohnarbeiter

Wenzel Matyas, gestorben 07.03.1911, 70 Jahre, Tageslohnarbeiter

Frau Wenzel Mathias, geb. Artner, gesorben 1937


In Bernolakovo

04.09.1891, Trauung Juliana Vendl und Michaly Froelich, Schmied in Bernolakovo 50

27.10.1811, Geburt Katalin Barina, Witwe nach Venczel Loerincz, gab Geburt eines Mädchens namens Erzebeth bekannt

Il y a bien des personnes qui portent le nom de racine wenz wencz wenzl  wenk et notre notre nom wanclik est une variante

Locale  teutonisée . la variante slavisée semble être basée sur le prénom wojciech  qui a donné les nom de la forme wojciechowski wojcieszonek etc


Ausfertigung eines Briefes über die Leibesentlassung (Leibledigung, Manumission) der leibeigenen Frau nebst Kind eines leibfreien Untertanen der Fürstenbergischen Regierung vom 09. Dezember 1768 aus dem Fürstlichen Fürstenbergischen Archiv Donaueschingen (veröffentlicht in Werner Hacker: Auswanderungen aus dem nördlichen Bodenseeraum“).

Solche Manumissionsbriefe bekamen die Auswanderer mit und hatten sie bei ihrer neuen Herrschaft wieder abzugeben







What we know about
Wentz Family

We found 82,045 matches for Wentz in our records:


matches in Historical Newspapers


matches in U.S. Records Collection


matches in U.S. Immigration Collection


matches in U.S. Census Images and Indexes

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Where were Wentz families living in 1920?*



Number of Wentz families





*Population distribution was
derived from the 1920
U.S. Federal Census.

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Ancestor's First Name

Ancestor's Last Name

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What does the Wentz name mean?

Last Name: Wentz


  1. German: from a pet form of the personal name Werner, or, especially in eastern regions, from a short form of the Slavic personal name Wenceslaw.


Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4

First Name: 


A Dictionary of First Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192800507

(Dictionary of Names)

Polish Names of Slavonic Origin

In common with other Slavonic languages, Polish has a great number of pet forms of names. These are almost always used except officially or in especially formal situations. As in Russian, they are formed from one or two syllables of the original name with an ending attached.


Given Name and Variants






Bogdan Bohdan

Bodek Bodzio

God + gift

Boguchwal Bogufal


God + 'chwala' praise



God + great



God + grace


Bogusz Bohusz

God + glory

Boleslaw Boleslas Boleslaus


'bole' large + glory



Russian, Boris

Bozydar Bozydor


'bozy' divine + 'dar' gift



Brother + grace/favour



'bron' armour/protection + glory


Budzisz Budzyk

'budit' to arouse + glory

Chwalibog Chwaliborg, Falibog


'chwala' praise + god

Czcibor, Scibor, Cibor


'chest' honour + 'borit' to fight

Czeslaw Czeslav

Czech Czesiek

Honour + glory



Good + great



Good + grace

Dobroslaw, Dobieslaw


Good + glory



'dobro' good/kind

Dragomir Drogomir


'dorogo' dear/beloved + great






Spring + anger



Spring + great



Spring + grace



Spring + people



Spring + glory




Kasimierz Kazimierz (Casimir)


'kazic' to destroy + great



'kviat' flower + glory



'lech' a Pole



'lech' a Pole + glory



Love + great



Love + grace



Love + glory



People + great

Ludoslaw Lutoslaw


'lud' people + glory

Mieczyslaw, Maslaw

Mieszko Mietek

'miercz' man or 'mieska' bear + glory


Milek Milosz, Milus

Grace + glory

Miroslaw Miroslawy


Great +_glory



'mshcha' vengeance + glory






Trick, stategem

Przybyslaw Przbyslaw


'pribit' to be present'help + glory





Raclaw Radusha Slawek

Glad + glory



Glad + great

Roscilaw Roscislaw


'rosts' usurp + glory




Slawomierz Slawomir


Glory + grace

Stanislaw Stanislav Stanislaus Stanislas

Stach Stas Stasio

'stan' government + glory



'svyanto' bright/holy + great



Bright + people/race



Bright + glory




Wenceslaw Wienczyslaw Wieceslaw


'ventie' more/greater + glory


Wieslaw Wiesiek Wiesiulek

'vele' great + glory

Wladyslaw Wlodzislaw (Ladislas Ladislaus)


'volod' rule + glory





Wojteczek Wojtek

'voi' soldier + 'tech' consolation






'zbit' to get rid of + 'gniew' anger

Zdislaw Zdzislaw

Zdzich Zdziech Zdziesz Zdzieszko Zdzis Zdzisiek

'zde' here/present + glory



'zhelit' desire + glory

Ziven Zivon


'zhiv' living


Given Name and Variants



Bogdana Bohdana

Bogna Dana

God + gift



God + glory



Large + glory












Good + great



Dear + great



'lech' a Pole



Grace + glory


Mira Mirka

Great + glory


Nadzia Natia Nata Natka Neda

Russian 'hope'



Russian form of Helge



Glad + grace


Rada Radinka

Glad + glory



Russian 'Raisa'

Roscilawa Roscislawa


Usurp + glory






Government + glory

Wanda Vanda


From 'Wend'

Wiera Wiara Wira


Russian 'Vera' faith


Vladislavka, Valeska

Rule + glory



Present glory

Altpommersche Personennamen
Von W. Bychowski ( aus "Ostpommersche Heimat 25 /1932)
(abgeschrieben im Mai 2001 von Helmut Kunefke)

Vornamen wie Bogumil, Bogislav, Lubomir, Radislav, Ratibor hört man heute im Pommern selten. Und es könnte mancher fragen, ob es denn noch  wert sei, sie dem allgemeinen Interesse nahe zu bringen. Diese Frage danach zu entscheiden wäre unrecht. Denn aufmerksamer hörend, zählt man dieser alten Namen, zwar oft entstellt, auch heute noch mühelos viele hundert. Trotz lautlichen Eindeutschens mit oftmaliger Anpassung an sinnfremde deutschsprachliche Begriffe sind sie dem geübten Ohr in Pommern überall vernehmbar. In Ortsnamen erkennen wir sie und in vielen altpommerschen Familiennamen. Viele von ihnen haben sich noch in ihrer urtümlichen, nach indogermanischem Brauch gebildeten zweiteiligen Form erhalten und sind darum leicht erkennbar. Ihre Deutung jedoch ist schwieriger als die einstämmigen Namen, da man manchmal Wortstämme miteinander gekoppelt findet, die zusammen offenbar keinen Sinn ergeben - woraus aber nicht mit Notwendigkeit folgert, daß sie auch zu Zeiten ihrer Erfinder und ersten Träger widersinnig und schon verhärtet waren. Denn nicht wie heute häufig nur als Unterscheidungsmerkmal gab man einst den Kindern Namen, sondern als Segenswunsch zugleich. Aber diese Wünsche sind aus den nackten, gegenständlichen Wortstämmen heute nicht mehr deutbar; hing doch die Namensgebung damals zutiefst mit dem noch unerforschten Kultglauben der Völker und ihren religiösen Riten zusammen. Darum darf auch Namen, die von Tier oder Pflanze entlehnt sind, nicht stets als Ähnlichkeitsbezeichnungen deuten, sondern muß, und das besonders bei ältesten Namen, einen kultsymbolischen Ursprung annehmen. Sind doch die Tiere und Pflanzen der ältesten Sagen und Mythen die gleichen, wie die, deren Namen als Personenbenennung findet. Ein hinweisender Beleg für die kultsprachliche Herkunft mancher Personennamen dürfte auch das Stammwort "vlk" sein, das ähnlich in sämtlichen Sprachen Europas und Vorderasiens findet, im Slawischen "Wolf" bedeutet und hier unzählbar oft in Personennamen enthalten ist. Schon in vorindogermanischer Zeit galt es als Runenzeichen Y(?) in der schwankenden Bedeutung von "Wolf", "Hund", aber auch der Gehörnte (Hirsch, Elch, Stier) als hochkultisches Sinnbild der Grab- und Wintersonnenwendstätte. Mit dem Verflachen und Veräußerlichen des einst hochentwickelten Kultglaubens zu leblosen Kultriten, zu Aberglaube und Schamanentum wechselte auch der Sinn der alten kultsymbolischen Namen. So gab man in neuerer Zeit Kindern Namen mit vlk "Wolff" weil man glaubte, daß dieser Name vor dem Einfluß der Hexen schütze.
Dinge also des kultischen Lebens verknüpft mit Namen der Pflanzen- und Tierwelt und Begriffe, wie:
bor; rati "Krieg",
mir "Frieden",
mysli "Verstand", Sinn",
luby, mili  "Liebe"
flara "Ruhm"
sventi "Stärke"
vlada "Besitz"

spiegeln sich mehr oder minder deutlich in den heidnisch-slawischen Personennamen; aber auch von Körperteilen entlehnte man sie, von geistigen oder körperlichen Auffälligkeiten, von Farben, Metallen, Landschaft- und Völkernamen.
Die eigentümlichen slawischen Frauennamen ersetzte man frühzeitig schon durch männliche mit angehängtem "a" - Boguslawa, Vladislawa.
Häufiger als in anderen indogermanischen Sprachen gibt es im Slawischen einstämmige Namen, die zumeist Kurz- und Koseformen der mehrteiligen und mit einer Unmenge unerklärbarer Endungen gebildet sind.
Vom Stammwort lub beispielsweise: Luba, Lubon, Luak Lubo, Lubetz, Lubitz, Lubatz, Lubin, Lubota, Lubosch, Lubke und andere. 
Wir finden nun diese kurzformigen Personennamen neben ihrer zweiteiligen Urform ungemein vielzählig als bekannte pommersche Familien- oder Ortsnamen.
Nur einige von ihnen sind:




Bogdan, Bugdan, Boggasch, Bogatke, Wogatzke, Bujak, Buslaff, Bagemir

bog "Gott" 

Bogdan "Gottgegeben", Bogislav "Gottesruhm", und Bogumil "Gottlieb"

Daske, Dasse, Taschke

da "geben"


Güßloff, Goldschlag, Gode, Gutsch, Kutschke, Kuske

god "Schönheit"


Lübek, Lübke, Lüppke, Lobach, Lubatz, Lipkow, Lübtow

luby "lieb"

Lubomer, Luboslaw, Ljubogost

Mitzlaff, Mitschke, Meske, Misch, Miske, Mietz, Mitzling

mac "Schwert" oder mesiti "mischen"


Macislaw, Millbrodt, Millbratz, Milan, Mehlan, Mitzlaff, Milosch, Milatz, Milz, Mielke

mili "Liebe"

Miloslaw, Milobrat

Priebe, Pripke, Pritzlaff, Pritzig, Pribasch, Priba

priby "wachsen"


Radde, Raddatz, Rasek, Raschke, Reschke, Radslaw, Ratke, Retzlaff, Rettschlag, Ratslaff, Rätzke, Ratzke

rad "freuen", "gern" und rati "Krieg"

Radoslaw, Ratibor, Ratimer, Ratislaw.

Standtke, Stahnke, Stensch, Stanitz, Stanneke

stani "stehen"


Selke, Sulke, Sulisch, Zulek, Zollmer, Zillmer

sul "besser"

Sulislaw, Salimir, Suliroj

Triebke, Trebitz, Treblin, Trebus, Trebert, Triebert

asl. treb - "geschickt" oder trebiti "roden"

Trebilow, Trebomysl

Teßke, Tetzlaff, Teßmar, Dißmer, Technow, Teschen

techa "Trost"

Techoslaw, Tesimir, Techorad

Schlawin, Schlawe, Schlawicke, Schlage, Schlausch, Schlanske

slawa "Ruhm, Name"

Slawobor, Slawoljub, Lubislaw, Bratoslaw

Felske, Felsch, Völz, Fielslaff, Wehlisch, Wehl

asl. velij "groß"

Velislaw, Velimir

Wilke, Wöhlke, Walk

asl. olk "Wolf"


Wentzlaff, Wentz, Ventzke, Wendschlag, Wetzel

venste "mehr, größer" oder
ojenec "Kranz"


Ähnlich diesen sind noch eine Menge anderer altslawischer Personennamen vererbares und unvergängliches Eigentum vieler pommerscher Familien geworden. Aber wenn auch ihre Klangform oder der wie Edelrost sie umhüllende historische Reiz sehr für sie einnehmen, kann man doch nicht für ihren neuerlichen Gebrauch als Vornamen werben, denn zu fern schon und fremd uns liegt jene Welt, der sie zugehören.






The Imperial Nobility


and the Constitution of the Holy Roman Empire





The detailed description of the Imperial constitution can be found in the books Teutsches Staats-Recht and Neues Teutsches Staats-Recht written by Johann-Jakob Moser (1701-1785).



In the 18th century, a status of a noble family in the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) was determined by several attributes:

1. an ownership of the Imperial immediacy;

2, the right to vote in the Imperial Assembly and assemblies of the Imperial Circles;

3. titles of dominion.


The time when a family acquired these attributes was also important.



The Local Governments in the Middle Ages


During the Middle Ages European monarchs often delegated some of their regal rights to local governments. In countries where royal authority declined local governments became less and less dependent on it. Step by step, the countries grew disintegrated, and sub-states could emerge. The sub-states never declared formal independence, but the central government could hardly control how they dispensed justice, minted coins, fought enemies, maintained relations with foreign rulers.


The Merovingian and Carolingian France, Norway, Russia, Poland, Lithuania, etc were divided by branches of ruling families, with nominal overlordship of the senior representatives of the families. Even in the countries whose political integrity was preserved, younger representatives of ruling families (often heirs to thrones) were given the dependent principalities (e.g. Wales in England, Schleswig in Denmark, Calabria and Tarento in Naples, Moravia in Czechy etc).


The kingdoms of France, Italy, Germany, Lotharingia, Burgundy and Arelat appeared as a result of the divisions of the Carolingian Empire in 9th century. In these countries administrative units were called "counties". The county (Latin: Pagus) was governed by a count (Latin: Comes), an official appointed by the kings. When the royal power grew weaker, the counts made their office hereditary and ceased to be royal representatives. Some counties existed without substantial territorial changes for centuries. A few comital families were able to acquire neighboring counties and created "principalities". In some areas the administrative authority that once belonged to counts passed to viscounts, castellans (the administrators of a small territory with a castle as its center), ecclesiastical institutions, local barons, cities, and rural communities.


By the 11th century most the former Carolingian lands became parts of the Kingdom France and the Holy Roman Empire (heiliges römisches Reich). Both states had very weak central government, and they turned into confederations of sub-states and other self-ruling territories.


By the end of the 15th the kings of France managed to include most of the French territories in the royal domain and restore their authority in the kingdom. All counties and duchies in France that still existed were subdued. During the next century they lost all traits of the sub-states.




The European Titles of Territorial Dominion


After collapse of the Carolingian empire the people that ruled big territories could bear different titles (Latin: marchio, dux, princeps, comes, etc) that would develop into the hereditary titles of territorial dominion. The dominical titles were associated with government of territories. Territories gave titles to their owners. E.g. a man became a count, when a king gave him a county. When the county went to a new owner, the old one lost the title.


The dominical titles were not a mandatory attribute of territorial rulers. Many of them (e.g. the ancient Sires of Bourbon) bore no special titles of territorial dominion and were simply styled "Lords" (Latin:Domini).


By the 14th century the hierarchy of the Europen titles of territorial dominion had developed. At the top was the title of Duke (Latin: Dux, German: Herzog). The second one was the title of Margrave or Marquise (Latin: Marchio, German: Markgraf). Next was the title of Count (Latin: Comes, German: Graf). Below stood the title of Viscount (German: Vizegraf). In the 15th century the title of Baron (German: Freiherr) was formalized and added to the bottom of the hierarchy. Eventually, most of the European countries adopted this hierarchy in general, but some countries might have their own versions of it. By the 11th century the title of Marquise went out of use in France, and was re-appeared there only in the 16th century. In some countries certain native titles were included in the hierarchy. E.g. the ancient English title of Earl was translated in Latin as "Comes" and was placed between Marquis and Viscount. In Germany several new titles derived from the title of Count: Count Palatine (Pfalzgraf), Land Count or Landgrave (Landgraf), Forest Count (Wildgraf), City Count or Burgrave (Burggraf), etc. The title of Viscount was not granted in Germany. The latest title that was added to the hierarchy was title of Prince (Latin: Princeps; German: Fürst). Originally, term "Prince" was mostly considered as a rank, often applied to rulers, the highest nobility and younger members of the reigning houses. Then the term "Prince" evolved in a new title of dominion. For sure, the title of Prince was above the one of Count, but its relation to other titles, especially to the title of Duke varied in different countries and sometimes changed as time went on.


Gradually people began to recognize the social prestige associated with the titles of territorial dominion (there were other titles, not connected with possession of territories). It gave the European monarchs new possibilities to honor people. To give a person a new dominical title a king elevated one of the person's possessions to a duchy, a county, etc. Before the 15th century a number of the elevations was limited, and the elevated territories were of substantial value. Most of the grantees were members of royal houses and the value of the titles increased. Then the monarchs began to use the dominical titles as rewards for services. As time went on more and more titles were granted. Less important members of society could receive them. Any favorite of a king might hope that one day he would be included in once very limited circle of the European titled nobility. Smaller and poorer territories were elevated.


Originally, in the Holy Roman Empire and France only sub-states bore titles thus all titled persons were rulers of autonomous territories. The dominical titles were exclusively associated with the territorial lordship.


From the 14th century in England, Scotland, Spain, Portugal, Naples, etc viscounties, counties, marquisates and duchies were given to very important people, often of royal blood. Nevertheless, the possession of the titled territories in these countries implied no territorial lordship of their owners.


The Roman Emperors and kings of France introduced similar practices in their countries in the 16th century when they began to give dominical titles to persons who had no territorial lordship. The values of titles devaluated.


Thus two different categories of the titled nobility developed in Europe: with and without the territorial lordships.


Eventually, an ownership of a territory ceased to be a requirement for receiving a dominical title. By the 19th century most of the newly created titles had lost any real connection with territories and had become the family names.




Types of Inheritance in the Noble Families


The most important questions of all systems of the noble inheritance in the feudal Europe were

1) the possibility to pass lands through females and

2) division of inheritance among heirs.


Tthe so-called Salic Law prescribed that only the male members of a noble family had the right to inherit lands. The female relatives could inherit a territory only, if the last male representative of the family had died. Some terriories remained indivisible. There was only one owner of the territory, and only this person bore a dominical title associated with it. If a parent owned several distinct territories, they might come to different heirs.

The Primogeniture system dictated that a first-born child inherited everything. The feudal families of France and the neighboring lands of the Empire (the Low Countries, Lorraine etc), had adopted Primogeniture from the Middle Ages. In these countries (but not in the French royal house) daughters took precedence over their uncles, and many territories had passed through the female line. But in other parts of the Empire feudal families followed rules of the Salic Law. This is why in many German countries the same reigning families ruled for several centuries. In the most German lands feudal territories were considered as a common property of a whole family. The Imperial constitutions only prohibited the divisions of the lands associated with the Electoral dignity. Other hereditary fiefs and allodial lands could be divided among members of a family. Every male member of the family was an heir and had the right to share the common inheritance. In some cases the family members ruled a feudal territory jointly. But, mostly, the territory was divided, and each part had its own government. Formally all these parts might continue to be considered as one entity in the framework of the Imperial Constitution. All children bore the titles of their father.


Political Development of the Holy Roman Empire


By the end of the 13th century the monarchy in the Holy Roman Empire finally became elective.

Until the end of the Empire in 1806, the central Imperial institutions remained weak; they could not effectively control local governments. Some local governments subjected neighbors and imposed their authority to entire regions. Such territorial powers were defined as immediate (unmittelbar) to the Roman Emperor (German:Römischer Kaiser, Latin:Romanorum Imperator). A duke, a city council, a bishop, a count or a knight could own the possession of this Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmmitelbarkeit). The Imperial immediacy gave their owners the territorial lordship (Landeshoheit), which resembled sovereignty of an independent state. Officially, this sovereignty was limited because all immediate territories were under the formal suzerainty of the Empire. In the course of the Imperial reforms of the end of the 15th century there were attempts to create a complete list of all territories immediate to the Empire to levy the Common Penny (Gemeine Pfennig). The list of immediate Imperial territories that paid Imperial taxes was called Reichsmatrikel.


The Reichsmatrikel changed drastically during the 16th century:

- the Swiss lands lost their connections with the Empire (Geneva, Lausanne, Wallis, Schaffhausen, St.Gallen, Kreuzlingen, Einsiedeln, Dissentis, etc);

- France annexed some Imperial territories (Metz, Toul, Verdun, etc),

- lay princes annexed ecclesiastical possessions during the Reformation (Saalfeld, Maulbronn, Königsbronn, etc);

- immediate families became extinct and their territories disappeared as separate entities (Hoorn, Wunstorf, Plesse, Gera, Beuchlingen, Bitsch, Ruppin, Schaumberg (in Austria), Bergen, Haag, Leissnigk, etc).

In the 17th and 18th centuries the Reichsmatrikel did not change often.


In 18th century the Holy Roman Empire consisted of over 1800 separate immediate territories governed by distinct authorities

The Status of the Imperial Estate (Reichsstandschaft) was attached to the Imperial immediate territories, which paid the imperial taxes through one of the 10 Imperial Circles (Reichskreise) and gave their

owners the right to vote in the Imperial Assembly/the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).


Only the Roman Emperors granted the Imperial fiefs and titles. The Imperial fiefs, in most cases, were the Imperial immediate territories. (But not always, e.g. the Imperial Post Office was considered as an Imperial fief). The Imperial fiefs could be given to both ecclesiastical and secular persons. As a rule, the secular persons were able to make the Imperial fiefs hereditary in their families.




Categories of the German Nobility in 15th Century


Three major category of nobility in the Empire had formed by the second half of the 15th century:

1. Territorial rulers,

2. Imperial Knights and

3. Territorial Nobility.


The territorial rulers had the right of Landeshoheit in their possessions. They had representation in the Imperial Assembly i.e. were recognized as the Imperial Estates (Reichsstände). The families of the secular territorial rulers constituted the High Nobility (Hochadel). There were two groups of the secular territorial rulers:

1 Princes and

2. Counts and Lords.


The Imperial Knights were immediate to the Empire. They had the right of Landeshoheit in their possessions. The knightly territories were not included in the Imperial circles and the Imperial Knights did not pay the Imperial taxes. Thus, the Imperial Knights did not have the status of the Imperial Estate. The Imperial Knighthood(Reichsritterschaft) as a separate noble category shaped in the 15th century. The Imperial Knights had grouped themselves into three Knightly Circles (Ritterkreise): of Swabia, Franconia and the Rhine. The Knightly Circles consisted of 14 Cantons.


Most of noble families belonged to the category of the Territorial Nobility (Landsadel, landsässigen). The territorial nobility did not have the right of Landeshoheit in their possessions. They were under jurisdiction of immediate territorial rulers.


Before the end of the 15th century the Imperial Knights and territorial nobles never bore dominical titles.






The Princes were the most influential noble category.


Originally, the Princely rank (Fürstenstand) was associated with the most important of the Imperial fiefs (archbishoprics, bishoprics, duchies, markgraviates, etc). There were several original hereditary fiefs in Germany with the Princely rank:

- the duchy of Bavaria (Bayern),

- the duchy of Saxony (Sachsen),

- the duchy of Lorraine (Lothringen),

- the duchy of Swabia (Schwaben),

- the palatinate of the Rhine,

- the palatinate of Saxony,

- the duchy of Austria (Österreich),

- the duchy of Styria (Steiermark),

- the duchy of Carinthia (Kärnten),

- the duchy (then the kingdom) of Czechia or Bohemia (Böhmen),

- the duchy of Brabant,

- the county of Anhalt,

- the landgraviate of Thuringia (Thüringen),

- the markgraviate of Brandenburg,

- the markgraviate of Misnia (Meissen),

- the markgraviate of Lusatia (Lausitz).


By the end of the 15th century the Roman emperors gave the Princely rank to the following territories :

- Brunswick in 1235 (for the Welfs) ,

- Hesse in 1292 (for the branch of the Brabant family),

- Savoy in 1310,

- Pomerania in 1320,

- Jülich in 1336,

- Gelderland in 1339,

- Mecklenburg in 1348 (for the descendants of prince Niklot of the Obodrites),

- Pont-a-Mousson (for the Bar family) in 1354,

- Luxembourg in 1354,

- Tyrol in 1359 (for the Goritia (Görz) family),

- Baden in 1364,

- Orange (Oranien) in 1376,

- Berg in 1380,

- Nuremberg (Nürnberg) in 1385 (for the Hohenzollern),

- Milan in 1395 (for the Visconti house),

- Kleve in 1417,

- Mantua in 1432 (for the Gonzaga house),

- Cilly in 1436,

- Leuchtenberg in 1450,

- Modena in 1452 (for the Este house),

- Henneberg in 1471,

- Holstein in 1474 (for the Oldenburg house),

- Württemberg in 1495.



In many cases the elevated territories were made duchies or margraviates. The counties, landgraviates, burgraviates, etc, which did not change their titles when they got the Princely rank, were styled Princely (gefürsteten) (Leuchtenberg, Henneberg,Tyrol, Cilli, etc).

See the Appendix A for the list of territories elevated by the Roman Emperors.




Counts and Lords


Counts and Lords were the lesser territorial rulers that had the status of the Imperial Estate, but did not have the Princely rank.


In the 18thcentury there were several reigning houses that traced their origin from ancient comital families:

- Castell;

- Fürstenberg;

- Hohenzollern;

- Leiningen;

- Limburg-Styrum;

- Mansfeld;

- Mark;

- Montfort;

- Nassau;

- Schwarzburg;

- Oldenburg;

- Ortenburg;

- Öttingen;

- Sayn-Wittgenstein;

- Solms;

- Stolberg-Wernigerode;

- Waldeck;

- "the Forest & Rhine Counts" (Wild- und Rheingrafen) (in Upper Salm);

- Württemberg;



Some families received the comital title through marriages:

- Götterswick (1421 Counts of Bentheim);

- Runkel (1462 Counts of Wied and 1475 Counts of Leiningen-Westerburg);

- Reifferscheidt (1416/1455 Counts of Lower Salm);


Immediate territorial rulers that had no title were called the Noble Lords (Edlen Herren). In the 18thcentury there were several reigning houses derived from these non-titled immediate families. By that time all of them had been granted the dominical title :

- Erbach (1532 Counts);

- Hanau (1429 Counts);

- Hohenems (1560 Counts);

- Hohenlohe (1450 Counts);

- Isenburg-Büdingen (1442 Counts);

- Königsegg (1629 Counts);

- Lippe (1529 Counts);

- Manderscheid (1457 Counts);

- Reuss (1673 Counts);

- Schönburg (1700 Counts);

- Schwarzenberg (1599 Counts);

- Waldburg (1628 Counts);





The Imperial Assembly or Diet (Reichstag)


The Imperial Assembly consisted of three Councils: Electors, Princes and the Free Cities or Imperial Cities (Freistädte oder Reichsstädte).


Initially, many princes claimed the right to elect a head of the Empire. However, the Golden Bull of 1356 restricted this right to seven ecclesiastical and secular princes, which were called Princes-Electors (Kurfürsten). According the Golden Bull the Council of Electors consisted of seven members:

1. the King of Bohemia;

2. the Archbishop of Mainz;

3. the Archbishop of Trier;

4. the Archbishop of Cologne(Köln);

5. the Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg (Electoral Saxony);

6. the Margrave of Brandenburg;

7. the Count Palatine of the Rhine.


During the Thirty Years war (1618-1648) Friedrich V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, was deprived his status of Elector, and it went to the Dukes of Bavaria. After the war the eighth Electorate was created and given to Friedrich V' son (1648). In 1692, the Duke of Brunswick-Hanover became the ninth member of the Council. In 1777, the dynasty of Bavaria died out, and Karl-Theodor, Count Palatine of the Rhine, inherited Bavaria, and electoral voices of Bavaria and the Palatinate were merged.


The Council of Princes (Fürstenrat) consisted of two benches or banks: Ecclesiastical (Geistlichebank) and Secular (Lay) (Weltlichebank). (sic. The house of Austria had voices of Austria and Burgundy in the Ecclesiastical bench).


In 1648, the treaty of Westphalia gave several secularized ecclesiastical territories and their voices in the Council of Princes to secular princely houses:

- Magdeburg to Brandenburg;

- Bremen with Verden to Sweden (in 1715/1720 went to Brunswick-Hanover);

- Halberstadt to Brandenburg;

- Minden to Brandenburg;

- Schwerin to Mecklenburg;

- Kamin to Brandenburg;

- Ratzenburg to Mecklenburg;

- Hersfeld to Hesse-Kassel.


Voices of these former ecclesiastical territories were transferred to the Secular bench (Weltlichebank) of the Council of Princes.

The former possessions of the Archbishops of Magdeburg and Bremen gave their new owners the title of Duke, the former possessions of bishops - the title of Prince.


Some Princely houses were able to accumulate several voices. E.g. in 1793 the Hanover line of the house of Brunswick had six voices in the Council.


By the end of the 18th century, there were one hundred voices in the Council of Princes. Usually, a big immediate territory had an individual voice (Virilstimme). Small territories were grouped in Curias and had collective or curial voices (Kuriatstimmen). There were two collective voices in the ecclesiastical bench of the Council of Princes. The four collective voices in the Secular bench of the Council of Princes belonged to the Colleges of the Imperial Counts (Reichsgrafenkollegium) of Franconia, Swabia, Wetterau and Westphalia.


By the end of the Empire a lot of members of the Colleges had the Princely rank. Nevertheless, according the Imperial constitution, they belonged to the 'Counts and Lords' category. The parts of curial voices of Nassau, Hohenzollern, Waldeck, Salm, East Frisia, Fürstenberg, Schwarzenberg and Schwarzburg were made individual voices in the Council of Princes (see the New Princely Houses, below).


Some princely houses (those who had individual voices in the Council of Princes), also had parts of curial voices of the Colleges of the Imperial Counts:

- Ansbach of Sayn-Altenkirchen;

- Austria of Hohenems and Montfort(Tettnang-Argen);

- Baden of Eberstein;

- Bavaria of Helfenstein;

- Brunswick-Hanover of Hoya, Diepholz and Spiegelberg;

- Brandenburg of Tecklenburg;

- Holstein of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst;

- Hesse-Kassel of Schaumburg;

- Thurn-Taxis of Eglingen;

- Fürstenberg of Heiligenberg;

- Salm of Anholt;

- Schwarzenberg of Klettgau-Sulz and Seinsheim.




The Imperial Circle Estates


Imperial estates listed in Reichsmatrikel were grouped in the Imperial Circles (Reichskreise).

The Status of the Imperial Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft) gave the right to sit and vote in the Circle Assemblies or Circle Diets (Kreistage). Originally, all Imperial estates were members of the Imperial Circles. Gradually this was changed. A status of the Imperial Circle Estate of an extinct reigning family passed with a Circle territory to its new owner with obligations to pay Imperial taxes. But the new owners did not automatically inherit positions of the extinct family in the Imperial Assembly. Thus, in the 18th century there were many secular territories , which were represented in the Circle Assemblies but not in the Imperial Assembly:

- Jülich-Berg,

- Kleve-Mark,

- Waldeck,

- Mindelheim,

- Sponheim,

- Hohenwaldeck,

- Hanau-Münzenberg,

- Hanau-Lichtenberg,

- Barby,

- Mansfeld,

- Hohenstein,

- Rantzau,

- Falkenstein,

- Justingen,

- Reipoltskirchen,

- Dachstuhl,

- Mörs,

- Königstein,

- Breiteneck, etc.


There were a few immediate territories that had representations only in the Imperial Assembly, but not in the Imperial Circles' Assemblies:

- Mömpelgard,

- Saffenburg,

- Dyck.

When the Circle system was established, the position of the King of Bohemia as Imperial Elector had been suspended since the Hussite wars 1420-1433. Thus, the Bohemian Crown Lands: Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia, Glatz, etc were included in no Imperial Circle.


Several Imperial immediate territories (Jever, Kniphausen, Schaumburg an der Lahn, Landskron, Mechernich, Pirmont bei Karden, Rheda, Stein, Schauen etc),

were included in neither Imperial Circles nor Knightly Circles and were not represented in the Imperial Assembly.


The divisions in reigning families were reflected differently in the Imperial Assembly and in Circle Assemblies. E.g.,

- the Hohenlohe family had only two voices in the Assembly of the Franconian Circle

but six voices in the Franconian College of Imperial Counts;

- the County of Schaumburg was represented with two voices in the Circle of Lower Rhine-Westphalia,

but only with one voice in the Westphalian College;

- the County of Sayn was represented with one voices in the Circle of Lower Rhine-Westphalia,

and with two voices in the Westphalian College;

- the family of Giech and Hohenlohe inherited allodial lands of the Wolfstein family and got its voice in the College of Franconian Counts.

Bavaria acquired Landeshoheit over Obersulzbürg-Pyrbaum and the Wolfstein voice in the Bavarian Circle Assembly.


Some Circle Assemblies had benches or banks similar to ones in the Imperial Assembly. Several ruling houses with the Princely rank had voices in the benches of Princes of Circle Assemblies, even they were not accepted in the Council of Princes of the Imperial Assembly:

- Öttingen-Öttingen,

- Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen,

- Nassau-Weilburg,

- Nassau-Usingen,

- Nassau-Idstein,

- Nassau-Saarbrücken,

- Nassau-Ottweiler,

- Solms-Braunfels,

- Isenburg-Birstein,

- Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort,

- Hohenlohe-Waldenburg.


There were no curial voices in Circle Assemblies, only individual ones. Voices of counts were equal to voices of princes. Thus, lesser estates played more important role in Circle Assemblies than in the Imperial Assembly, where their influence was minimal. In the 17th and 18th centuries institutions of the Imperial Circles that did not include powerful territorial rulers (e.g. Swabia, Franconia) were more active than the Imperial institutions. In 1708 the Circle Assembly of Franconia excluded the County of Geyer from the list of the Circle Estates. In that way the Assembly prevented the King of Prussia , the heir to the Count of Geyer-Gibelstadt, to become a member of that Imperial Circle. The Assembly of the Circle also supported the allodial heirs to the Limpurg house in their struggle for the voices of Limpurg against the King of Prussia.


There were two Imperial Circle Personalists, the Prince of Thurn-Taxis and the Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort, who contributed monies not as owners of the Circle territories, but as persons.




The Ancient Princely houses


In the 16th century in the Empire there were several noble families, which owned territories with the Princely rank.


In the 15th and 16th centuries the Egmont house reigned in the Duchy of Gelderland.

In 1543 Emperor Charles V added Gelderland to his hereditary possessions.


The rulers of Orange (Oranien) had been given the Princely rank since the Middle Ages. The house of Chalon, which owned Orange, was listed in Reichsmatrikel among the Princely houses. It became extinct in 1530 and was succeeded in Orange by the house of Nassau-Dillenburg. Nevertheless, the house of Nassau-Dillenburg did not receive a voice in the Council of Princes until 1654.


In 1426 a branch of the Reuss family was enfeoffed with the Burgraviate of Misnia(Meissen). In 1548 it obtained the Princely rank and was accepted to the Council of Princes. The voice became extinct with the branch in 1572.


Originally, the most important privilege of those who had the Princely rank was the right to have an individual voice in the Council of Princes. The houses, which had gotten individual voices in the Council by 1582, were called the Ancient Princely houses (Altfürstliche Häuser):

1. the Dukes of Saxony-Lauenburg (the house of Askanien);

2. the Dukes of Saxony-Wittenberg (the house of Wettin);

3. the Dukes of Lorraine and Bar;

4. the Dukes of Bavaria and Counts Palatine of the Rhine (the house of Wittelsbach);

5. the Princes of Anhalt (the house of Askanien);

6. the Dukes of Mecklenburg (the house of Niklotides);

7. the Dukes of Pomerania;

8. the Margraves of Brandenburg (the house of Hohenzollern);

9. the Margraves of Baden and Hochberg (the house of Zähringen);

10. the Landgraves of Hesse (the house of Louvain-Brabant);

11. the Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Carinthia and Styria, Princely Counts of Tyrol,etc (the Austrian Habsburgs);

12. the Dukes of Brunswick and Luneburg (the house of Este-Welf);

13. the Dukes of Jülich, Kleve and Berg;

14. the Dukes of Savoy;

15. the Dukes of Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxembourg (the Spanish Habsburgs as heirs to Dukes of Burgundy);

16. the Dukes of Holstein (the house of Oldenburg);

17. the Dukes of Württemberg and Princely Counts of Mömpelgard;

18. the Princely Landgraves of Leuchtenberg;

19. the Princely Counts of Henneberg.

20. the Princely Counts (then Dukes) of Arenberg (the house of Ligne).

(The house of Arenberg received the rank of Prince in 1576 and was admitted to the Council of Princes in 1580).


The houses of Pomerania, Habsburg, Henneberg, Jülich-Kleve and Leuchtenberg became extinct. Other houses continued to rule until the 20th century.


Originally, a number of individual secular voices in the Council of Princes was not fixed, and depended on divisions and inheritances in the ruling families. Each branch of princely families had a separate voice. From the end of the 16th century, when new branches were established, they did not receive a separate voice automatically. E.g. all branches of the house of Anhalt shared one voice in the Council. Voices of extinct princely houses were preserved and given to other princely houses that acquired corresponding territories; voices of extinct branches of princely houses went to their relatives from other branches. In the 17th century the similar rules were introduced in Colleges of Imperial Counts.


As a rule, voices of extinct Ancient Princely houses went to other Ancient Princely houses:

- the voice of Henneberg to the Dukes of Saxony-Wittenberg;

- the voice of Saxony-Lauenburg to the Dukes of Brunswick;

- the voice of Leuchtenberg to the Dukes of Bavaria;

- the voice of the Duke of Burgundy (the Spanish Habsburgs) to the Archdukes of Austria;

- the voice of the Archdukes of Austria, etc to the Dukes of Lorraine;

- one of the voices of Pomerania to the Margraves of Brandenburg;

(Another voice of Pomerania went to Vasa, the royal dynasty of Sweden. The houses of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, Hesse-Kassel and Holstein-Gottorp that belonged to the Ancient Princely houses, succeeded the Vasa house in Sweden and Pomerania).


In 1738 Franz, Duke of Lorraine, ceded most of his possessions in the Empire (Lorraine, Bar, Salm, etc) to Stanislas Leszczynski, the former King of Poland. Stanislas, who did not leave sons, died in 1766, and Lorraine, and his other possessions were incorporated into France. The house of Lorraine preserved its individual voice in the Council of Princes that was now attached to the markgraviate of Nomeny.


Several voices of extinct branches of the Ancient Princely houses were excluded from the Council of Princes after 1582:

- Tyrol,

- Styria,

- Hesse-Rheinfels,

- Hesse-Marburg,

- Baden-Saussenberg,

- Jülich, Kleve and Berg (the Elector-Margrave of Brandenburg and the Count Palatine in Neuburg, the heirs to the last Duke, could not come to agreement about the voice).


Two new individual voices were created for branches of the Ancient Princely after 1582:

- Saxony-Gotha and

- the second voice for the Franconian branch of the Brandenburg house (Bayreuth),




The New Princely Houses


The grants of dominical titles were often used as a political tool. By the middle of the 15th century the Dukes of Burgundy had acquired most of the Low Countries, that belonged to the Empire. The Dukes created new comital titles and granted them to the some influential local noble families to get their support. Emperor Maximilian I, as an heir to the House of Burgundy, continued this policy. Among noble families , who received new titles (Glymes, Croÿ, Hoorn/Horn, Brimeu, Egmont, Mark/Marck, etc), not everyone had the Imperial immediate territories.


Maximilian I was also the first Emperor who granted the most important title, the Imperial Prince / the Holy Roman Empire Prince (des Heiligen Römischen Reichs Fürst), to the non-immediate nobility. The following are the first examples of the grants of the title of the Imperial Prince to the families that owned no immediate territories:

- in 1486 the family of Croÿ received the Princely rank as owners of the territory Chimay that was not immediate;

- in 1515 the Lithuanian noble family of Radziwill, which had no possessions in the Empire at all, received the title of Imperial Prince.


His successors tried to promoted their subjects, the territorial noble families of the Habsburg hereditary lands, to counter-weight the immediate nobility. In 1629, during the 30 years War, two Dukes of Mecklenburg were banned. Emperor Ferdinand II made his general Albrecht of Wallenstein/Waldstein (Valdštejn) (+1634) Duke of Mecklenburg. The general belonged to the Bohemian territorial nobility, but had been given the rank of Imperial Prince (1623), the non-immediate Duchy of Friedland in Bohemia (1625) and the Silesian Duchy of Sagan (1627). Victories of King Gustav-Adolf of Sweden allowed expelled Dukes returned their possessions (1631).


The Emperors from the Habsburg house did not give up their attempts to make their subjects with the princely titles (Liechtenstein, Lobkowitz, etc) equal to the immediate princes. The main goal of the Emperors was to introduce their Catholic subjects in the Council of Princes, where the immediate Protestant princes had too many voices. Those families received the Imperial titles, ancient duchies in Silesia (Münsterberg, Sagan, Troppau, Jägerndorf, etc) as fiefs, their non-immediate possessions were elevated to duchies and counties (Gottschee, Friedland, Krummau, Raudnitz, etc). Nevertheless, all this did not provide the Imperial immediacy. In 1641 Emperor Ferdinand III tried to introduce three new members into the Council of Princes. His attempt failed. Members of the Council rejected two candidates, the Imperial Prince of Eggenberg and the Imperial Prince of Lobkowitz, who were the Austrian subjects. The Ancient princes did not accept the status of the Eggenbergs and the Lobkowitzs as equal to their own status. By their request lawyers worked out strict requirements for new candidates. The most important of these requirements was an ownership an immediate territory included in one of the Imperial Circles. Also the new candidate had to get an agreement of other members of the Council. By 1653 both Princes had managed to meet all requirements (they became owners of immediate territories, etc) and were accepted in the Council. the Ancient princes had no objections against the third candidate, the Prince of Hohenzollern, from an ancient comital family.


The houses that received the right to vote in the Council in the 17th and 18th centuries were called the New Princely houses (Neufürstliche Häuser).

The following is a list of the New Princely houses with dates of their introduction in the Council:

1653 Hohenzollern-Hechingen;

1653 Eggenberg (the voice became extinct in 1717);

1653 Lobkowitz;

1654 Salm;

1654 Dietrichstein;

1654 Piccolomini (the voice became extinct in 1656);

1654 Nassau-Hadamar & Nassau-Siegen;

1654 Nassau-Dillenburg & Nassau-Diez;

1654 Auersperg;

1664 Portia/Porcia (the voice became extinct in 1665);

1667 East Frisia (Ostfriesland) (the voice went to Brandenburg);

1667 Fürstenberg;

1674 Schwarzenberg;

1686 (?1674) Waldeck-Eisenberg (the voice became extinct in 1692);

1705 Churchill-Marlborough (the voice became extinct in 1714);

1709 Lamberg (the voice of Leuchtenberg, went back to Bavaria);

1713 Liechtenstein;

1754 Thurn-Taxis;

1754 Schwarzburg.


There were two distinct categories of the New Princely houses:

1.The houses that enjoyed Imperial immediacy in the Middle Ages. Their elevation to the Princely rank did not differ from the similar promotions happened in the 14th and 15th centuries:

- Hohenzollern-Hechingen;

- Salm (Wild- und Rheingrafen);

- Nassau;

- East Frisia;

- Fürstenberg;

- Schwarzenberg;

- Waldeck-Eisenberg;

- Schwarzburg.


2. The houses that acquired immediate territories only in the 17th or 18th centuries to satisfy the above-mentioned requirement.

- Eggenberg;

- Lobkowitz;

- Dietrichstein;

- Piccolomini;

- Auersperg;

- Portia;

- Churchill-Marlborough;

- Lamberg;

- Liechtenstein;

- Thurn-Taxis.


The immediate territories that the New Princely houses acquired in Imperial circles:

- Gradisca in the Imperial Circle of Austria by Eggenberg;

- Sternstein in the Imperial Circle of Bavaria by Lobkowitz;

- Tarasp in the Imperial Circle of Austria by Dietrichstein;

- Thengen in the Imperial Circle of Swabia by Auersperg;

- Mindelheim in the Imperial Circle of Swabia by Churchill-Marlborough;

- Schellenberg-Vaduz in the Imperial Circle of Swabia by Liechtenstein;

- Eglingen, and then Sheer-Friedberg in the Imperial Circle of Swabia by Thurn-Taxis.

The importance of these houses did not derive from their immediate territories. Those New princely houses never permanently resided in their immediate territories,

never personally ruled them. E.g. the first visit of Prince of Liechtenstein to his immediate principality happened only in 1842.


During the War of the Spanish succession Elector and Duke of Bavaria was banned by the Roman Emperor. His possessions, the Landgraviate of Leuchtenberg and the Lordship of Mindelheim, were given to allies of the Emperor. The family of Lamberg received Leuchtenberg (1708). The Lambergs, which belonged to the Austrian territorial nobility, were made Imperial Princes in 1707 and were admitted to the Council in 1709 as Langraves of Leuchtenberg.

John Churchill received Mindelheim and an individual voice in the Council of Princes. John Churchill was a British nobleman that had been made Duke of Marlborough. After the War both Leuchtenberg and Mindelheim went back to Electors-Dukes of Bavaria. Bavaria received back the voices of Leuchtenberg in the Imperial Assembly and in the Circle of Bavaria, and the voice of Mindelheim in the Circle of Swabia. The lordship of Mindelheim lost its voice in the Imperial Assembly. Bavaria restored the individual voice of Mindelheim in the Council of Princes only in 1803.


The houses of Auersperg and Dietrichstein, actually, acquired an immediate territory after they were accepted to the Council.

Voices of Princes Piccolomini and Portia became extinct in the first generation because they failed to get an immediate territory.


Voices of extinct New Princely houses were excluded from the Council of Princes. The only exception was the voice of East Frisia that went to Brandenburg.

The individual voice of the Eisenberg branch of the house Waldeck, that became extinct, was not inherited by other branches, as happened to the voices of the extinct

branches of the houses Salm and Fürstenberg.




New Members of the Colleges of the Imperial Counts


The representatives of the Territorial Nobility could get the status of Imperial Estate when they were admitted to one of the Colleges of the Imperial Counts. The Colleges required that a new candidate owned an Imperial immediate territory. In the 17th and 18th centuries some territorial noble families inherited immediate territories through marriages with representatives of the High Nobility:

- Rietberg by the Princes of Kaunitz;

- Sayn by the Burgraves of Kirchberg-Farnroda;

- Mylendonk by the Counts of Ostein;

- Limpurg by the Counts of Pückler ;

- Wiesentheid by the Counts of Schönborn ;

- Blankenheim & Gerolstein by the Counts of Sternberg ;

- Gronsfeld by the Counts of Törring-Jettenbach;



Some territorial noble families were admitted to the Colleges when they acquired (bought, were granted or enfeoffed) immediate territories with the right of Landeshoheit:

- Egloff by Abensberg-Traun;

- Reckheim by Aspremont-Lynden;

- Welzheim by Grävenitz;

- Eglingen by Gravenegg;

- Gleichen by Hatzfeld;

- Bretzenheim by Heydeck/Heideck;

- Hohengeroldseck by Leyen;

- Winneburg & Beilstein by Metternich;

- Reichenstein by Nesselrode;

- Rieneck by Nostitz;

- Hallermund by Platen;

- Barmstedt by Ranzau/Rantzow;

- Kerpen & Lommersum by Schäsberg;

- Reichelsberg by Schönborn;

- Rheineck by Sinzendorf-Ernstbrunn;

- Thannhausen by Stadion;

- Eglingen by Thurn-Taxis;

- Breiteneck by Tilly;

- Weinsberg and Neustadt by Trauttmansdorff;

- Bretzenheim by Velen/Vehlen;

- Neustadt & Gimborn by Wallmoden;



In several exceptional cases the Colleges of the Imperial Counts of Franconia and Swabia admitted new candidates, which did not own immediate lordships attached to the Imperial Circles. Those new members of the Colleges were called "Personalists" because they were immediate as persons but not as owners of immediate territories. Some of them belonged to the Imperial Knighthood and possessed immediate territories included in no Imperial Circle (Giech, Neipperg, Rechberg, etc). The knightly family of Sickingen was recognized as an Estate of the Swabian Imperial Circle, and then accepted to the College Swabian Counts. Thus, Counts of Sickingen were not considered as Personalists.


There were territorial lords that owned lands, which immediacy was disputed. If these lords were able to obtain recognition of their immediacy, they could be accepted in the Colleges (e.g. Schleiden, Mylendonk, Wyckradt, Gemen, etc). Usually the acceptance in the Colleges followed recognition as an Imperial Circle Estate.




The Imperial Titles


The title of Duke (Herzog) in most cases gave its owner the Princely rank. By the end of the 13th century there were several duchies in the Empire:

- Saxony,

- Lorraine,

- Limburg,

- Brabant,

- Bavaria,

- Austria,

- Styria,

- Carinthia,

- Brunswick-Lüneburg,

- Silesia,

- Pomerania.


Before 16th century only a few new duchies were established in Germany and Italy:

- Lucca ( for the Castracani house, became extinct);

- Gelderland in 1339;

- Mecklenburg in 1348;

- Luxembourg in 1354;

- Jülich in 1356;

- Berg in 1380;

- Milan in 1396 ( for the Visconti house);

- Kleve in 1417;

- Savoy in 1417;

- Modena in 1452 ( for the Este house)

- Holstein in 1474 ( for the Oldenburg house);

- Württemberg in 1495.


In the next centuries the Imperial Duchies were created for the families:

- Arenberg in 1644,

- Oldenburg in 1774,

- Anhalt-Bernburg in April 1806.

Interesting, all of the grantees had already styled dukes for other possessions:

- Arenberg as Dukes of Aerschot and Croÿ,

- Oldenburg as Dukes of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarshes,

- Anhalt-Bernburg as Dukes of Saxony, Angaria and Westphalia.



There were several rulers that bore the title of Margrave (Markgraf). Most Margraves had the Princely Rank.


In those feudal territories, which were considered as common property of a whole family, all members of the noble family bore the same titles.

If a noble family possessed a county, all members of the family were styled 'counts', even those, who did not rule the county.

A noble family could use the title of a territory it did not own when it:

a. claimed a territory (e.g. Dukes of Saxony bore titles of the extinct house of Jülich-Kleve);

b. owned a territory in the past (e.g. Archdukes of Austria bore titles of Dukes of Burgundy and Lorraine).


The most interesting example gave the rulers of Ansbach. Their title was "Margrave of Brandenburg, Duke in Prussia, of Silesia, Magdeburg, Jülich, Kleve, Berg,

Stettin, Pomerania, of the Kashubes & the Wendes, of Mecklenburg & Krossen, Burgrave of Nuremberg, Prince of Halberstadt, Minden, Kammin, of the Wendes, Schwerin, Ratzeburg & Mörs, Count of Hohenzollern, the Mark, Ravensberg, Schwerin, Sayn & Wittgenstein, Lord of Ravenstein & the Lands of Rostock & Stargard, etc". From this long list they actually ruled only in a part of the Sayn County.


Since the 16th century the Roman Emperors granted the titles of the Imperial Prince, the Imperial Count and the Imperial Baron. But those grants did not automatically changed the status of grantees in the Empire.


The title of Imperial Prince might be granted only to a head of a house. It was additional favor when the Imperial Princely rank was given to all members of a house. In the 18th century the non-reigning members of royal, ducal and princely houses had been informally called Prinzen. In the 19th century, Prinz became an official title of the younger members of the most reigning houses.


Originally, the title of the Imperial Prince itself did not include a name of territory. The following are examples of the Princely titles:

"Margrave of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire Prince-Elector,..",

"Duke of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire Prince-Elector, ..."

"the Holy Roman Empire Prince, Count and Lord of Mansfeld...",

"Duke of Arenberg, the Holy Roman Empire Prince, ...",

"Bishop of Würzburg, the Holy Roman Empire Prince and Duke of Franconia",

"the Holy Roman Empire Prince, Count of Holstein and Schaumburg,..",


There was also less formal way of styling. The Princely title was associated with the main possession of a ruling family. E.g. the rulers of Bavaria and the Palatinate sometimes used the simplified style "Prince-Elector of the Palatinate-Bavaria"(Kurfürst von Pfalzbayern) instead of the formal style "the Holy Roman Empire Prince-Elector, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria,...".

Another example came from Hesse-Kassel where its rulers in the 19th century used both "Prince-Elector, Landgrave of Hesse ,..." and "Prince-Elector of Hesse ,...".


The houses, which did not own immediate territories by the time they received the Princely rank, had the title of Imperial Prince associated with their family names.

E.g. "the Holy Roman Empire Prince of Auersperg" or "the Holy Roman Empire Prince of Colloredo".

In some rare cases the Emperors granted to some families the right to rename their immediate territories giving them the family's name, e.g. Liechtenstein, Ligne, Rantzau, Windisch-Graetz, etc. Thus, in titles "the Holy Roman Empire Prince of Liechtenstein" and

"the Holy Roman Empire Prince of Windisch-Graetz" words "Liechtenstein" and "Windisch-Graetz" could mean both the family names and possessions of the families.


In the 18th century it became more often to omit "the Holy Roman Empire" and mention a branch name of reigning houses in less formal Princely styles, e.g. "Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt".





The Imperial Estates with the Limited Territorial lordship


By the end of the 18th century some houses preserved the status of Imperial Estate but did not have full political authority in their territories.

- In 1738 the County of Stolberg came under the partial overlordship of Electoral Saxony. Count of Stolberg-Stolberg, whose another possession, the County of Hohenstein, had been under the overlordship of Brunswick-Hanover, since this time had no sovereignty. Nevertheless, he did not loose his membership in the Wetterau College of Imperial Counts.

- Since 1740 all possessions of Counts and Prince of Schönburg were under the partial overlordship of Electoral Saxony. They continued to collectively own a voice in the Wetterau College of Imperial Counts.

- The County of Bentheim, owned by the house of Bentheim-Bentheim, was mortgaged until 1804 to Brunswick-Hanover, which had the Bentheim voice in the Circle of Lower Rhine-Westphalia. The Bentheim family preserved its voice in the Westphalian College of Imperial Counts.

- The County of Hallermund gave its owner, Count of Platen, the right to vote in the Westphalian College and in the Circle Assembly of the Lower Rhine-Westphalia. Brunswick-Hanover exercised actual authority in the County.







After the 15th century, most ruling houses gradually started to introduce the principle of Primogeniture. Thus, principalities and counties were not divided among multiple heirs any more. Sometimes, younger sons of rulers were given territories as appanages without the rights of Landeshoheit (e.g. Brandenburg-Schwedt, Hesse-Philippsthal, Lippe-Biesterfeld, Lippe-Weissenfels, Reuss-Köstritz, Holstein-Sonderburg etc). In several cases younger members of ruling houses were given some sovereign rights (e.g. Hesse-Homburg) and, it often led to legal disputes.





The Imperial Italy (Reichsitalien)


North Italy never formally broke out from the Empire. Many local rulers considered their possessions as Imperial fiefs and bore Imperial titles, nevertheless, with exception of Duke of Savoy, were represented neither in Imperial circles nor in the Imperial Assembly.




Silesian Dukes


The Silesian dukes also had a special status in the Empire. From the one hand, they inherited some sovereignty of the ancient reigning houses of Piast that ruled in the 9th-14th centuries in Poland. But from the other hand, the Silesian dukes did not have the status of Imperial Estate, and, thus an ownership of a Silesian duchy did not give the right to be included in the High Nobility of the Empire. Mieszko I (died in 992), from the Piast house, the first Christian ruler of Poland, made Silesia a part of his state. His son, Boleslaw I the Brave (reigned in 992-1025) defended the independence of his country from the Empire and was the first crowned king of Poland. Nevertheless, the German kings continued to claim their suzerainty over the Polish state. During the reigns of Boleslaw's successors there was a period of decline in Poland, and her rulers lost their title of King. They started to use the title, which was translated in Latin as Dux (Duke in English). The awareness of centrifugal trends led Duke Boleslaw III the Wry-Mouthed (reigned 1102-38) to establish in his testament of 1138 the Senioriaty system in Poland. Boleslaw III divided the state among his sons; the oldest became the senior duke, whose domain included the capital in Krakow and who had general powers over military, foreign, and ecclesiastical matters. By the early 13th century, however, the efforts of the senior dukes to exert real controls failed. Disputes, subdivisions, and fratricidal strife characterized the entire system. As a result Poland turned into a set of parts, ruled by different branches of the Piast house, although in theory Poland continued to exist as a country. Silesia was one of those parts. The dukes of Silesia continued to divide their part among members of their branch. As a result, in a century, Silesia was divided in a dozen of small duchies.


The Silesian dukes, as representatives of the senior branch of the Piasts, fought for Krakow, whose ownership implied the seniority over other Polish dukes. But there were two other branches of the Piast house that participated in the final struggle for the Polish overlordship at the end of the 13th century: the branch of Kujawja, represented by Wladislaw I the Short (Lokietek), who would be finally recognized as a sole overlord of the country, and the branch of Greater Poland, represented by Przemysl II. Przemysl II (died in 1296) was crowned as King and thus restored the title in Poland. He left no sons, and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Wenceslaw II, king of Bohemia. Being of non-Piast origin Wenceslaw II and his successors on the throne of Bohemia were recognized in the substantial part of the country as the kings of Poland. John (Jan) of Luxembourg (died in 1346), king of Bohemia, gave up his claims to Poland, but forced most of the Silesian dukes to recognize his overlordship. Thus, Silesia was separated from Poland, and became a land of the Bohemian Crown and the Empire. Kings of Bohemia added "the Duke of Silesia" to their titles. The Silesian dukes did not hold their land directly from the Empire they were not recognized as the Imperial Princes. When some branches of Silesian Piasts became extinct their lands came under the direct rule of the kings of Bohemia. They were free to keep the duchies to themselves or gave as fiefs. The house of Wettin was given the duchy of Sagan, the Brandenburg Hohenzollerns received the duchies of Krossen and Jägerndorf(Krnov). George of Podiebrad, King of Bohemia, gave the duchies of Öls and Münsterberg to his son. In 1526 Silesia as a land of the Bohemian Crown became the possession of the Habsburg house. The Habsburgs ,as kings of Bohemia, continued the practice of grant as fiefs the former Piast duchies in Silesia. They had enough lands to distribute because all branches of the Piast House became extinct (in 1675 died the last Piast- Georg-Wilhelm, Duke of Liegnitz and Brieg). When the Austrian Habsburgs granted the Silesian duchies, as a rule, their new owners did not received the same rights and privileges, the former Piast dukes enjoyed. Nevertheless, the status of those new owners was much higher than other Bohemian subjects. Among these new Silesian dukes were many important people : Wladislaw IV and John-Casimir, kings of Poland, Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania, Albrecht of Wallenstein, the members of the princely houses of Lorraine, Saxony, Württemberg, Brunswick, Auersperg, Lobkowitz, Liechtenstein, Biron, etc. Some of them had the right to mint their own coins. There were several possessions of the former Silesian dukes in Silesia, whose new owners did not receive the title of the Duke (Trachenberg, Militsch, Wartenberg, Pless, etc), but gave their owners some additional feudal rights comparing with other noble landlords.


In 1740 Friedrich II, King of Prussia, conquered most of Silesia and began to style himself "Sovereign and Premier Duke of Silesia" (Souverainer und Oberster Herzog von Schlesien), stressing that he owned Silesia not as a fief of Bohemia. Maria-Theresa of Austria preserved several areas in Silesia, and the Austrian rulers continued to style themselves "the Dukes of the Upper and Lower Silesia" up to 1918.


In our days, the ruling Prince of Liechtenstein still claims the ownership of the Silesian duchies of Troppau und Jägerndorf, which are parts of Czechia now, and bears corresponding titles. In its modern form the Liechtenstein title does not mention "Silesia" as used to be. (E.g. the Constitution of Liechtenstein of 1818 began with the following words "Wir Johann-Joseph, von Gottes Gnaden Souverainer Fürst und Regierer des Hauses von und zu Liechtenstein von Nikolspurg, Herzog zu Troppau und Jägerndorf in Schlesien, ...".


In the 19th century the owners of the old principalities and the new ones created by the Prussian kings (e.g. the Principality of Trachenberg for the house of Hatzfeld, the Principality of Krotoszyn for the House of Thurn & Taxis, the Duchy of Ratibor for the House of Hohenlohe) had no more privileges than other titled nobility of Austria and Prussia.




Appendix A


The Imperial immediate territories whose titles were upgraded.


- 1436 the Counties of Cilli and Ortenburg to a Principality;

- 1495 the Lordship of Steinfurt to a County (for the Bentheim house);

- 1532 the Lordship of Erbach to a County;

- 1538 the Lordship of Zimmern to a County;

- 1576 the County of Arenberg to a Princely County;

- 1623 the County of Hohenzollern to a Princely County;

- 1624 the Lordship of Neustadt to the Princely County of Sternstein (for the Lobkowitz house);

- 1628 the Lordship of Wolfegg to a County (for the Waldburg house);

- 1628 the Lordship of Zeil to a County (for the Waldburg house);

- 1628 the Lordship of Segenberg to a County (for the Waldstein/Wallenstein house);

- 1629 the Lordship of Königsegg to a County;

- 1641 the Lordship of Neustadt to the Princely County of Sternstein (for the Lobkowitz house);

- 1643 the Lordship of Esterau to the County of Holzapfel;

- 1644 the Princely County of Arenberg to a Duchy;

- 1650 the Lordship of Barmstedt to the County of Rantzau;

- 1664 the Lordship of Thengen to a Princely County (for the Auersperg house);

- 1664 the County of Fürstenberg to a Princely County;

- 1665 the Lordship of Thannhausen to a County (for the Sinzendorf house);

- 1671 the County of Schwarzenberg to a Princely Landgraviate;

- 1679 the Lordships of Winneburg and Beilstein to a County (for the Metternich house);

- 1685 the Lordships of the family of Geyer-Giebelstatt to a County;

- 1689 the County of Klettgau to a Princely Landgraviate (for the Schwarzenberg house);

- 1710 the County of Schwarzburg to a Principality;

- 1719 the Lordship of Schellenberg and County of Vaduz to the Principality of Liechtenstein;

- 1757 the County of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg to a Principality;

- 1770 the Lordship(Baronie) of Fagnolles to a County (for the Ligne house);

- 1772 the County of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein to a Principality;

- 1785 the Lordships of Scheer and County of Friedberg to the Princely County of Friedberg-Scheer (for the Thurn-Taxis house);

- 1803 the Lordships of Babenhausen, Boos and Ketterhausen to the Principality of Babenhausen (for the Fugger house);

- 1803 the Lordship of Ochsenhausen to a Principality (for the Metternich house);

- 1804 the Lordship of Egloff to a Principality of Windisch-Graetz;

- 1804 the Lordship of Edelstetten to a Princely County (for the Esterházy of Galántha house);

- 1804 the Lordships of Krautheim and Gerlachsheim to a Principality (for the Salm-Reifferscheidt house);

- 1805 the Lordship of Umpfenbach to a Princely County (for the Trauttmansdorf house);



County (Grafschaft),

Princely County (gefürsteten Grafschaft),

Princely Landgraviate (gefürsteten Landgrafschaft),

Duchy (Herzogtum)

Principality (Fürstentum)




Appendix B


Samples of Titles of Dominion in the 16th-18th centures


- Eggenberg: the HRE Prince of Eggenberg, Duke of Krummau, Princely Count of Gradisca, Count of Adelsberg, Lord of Aquileja.


- East Frisia (Ostfriesland): the Prince and Lord of East Firsia, Lord of Esens, Stadesdorf and Wittmund.


- Habsburg (Charles V, Emperor and King of Spain) : Emperor of the Romans, ever August, King of Germany, Castile, León, Aragón, the Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Mallorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova(Córdoba), Corsica, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Indies, the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Lorraine, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola(Krain), Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Calabria, Athens, Neopatras, Württemberg, Marquis of of the HRE, of Burgau, Oristano, Gociano, Count of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol, Goritia(Görz), Barcelona, Artois, Burgundy palatin, Hennegau, Holland, Zealand, Pfirt (Ferrete), Kyburg, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagna, Zütphen, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Catalonia, Asturia, Lord in Frisia, of the Wendish Mark, Portenau (Pordenone), Biscaya(Vizcaya), Molin, Salins, Tripoli, Mecheln(Malines).


- Hanau: Count of Hanau, Rhineck and Zweibrücken, Lord of Münzenberg, Lichtenberg and Ochsenhausen.


- Holstein-Schaumburg: the HRE Prince, Count of Holstein, Schaumburg and Sternberg, Lord of Gemen.


- Limburg-Styrum (17th century) : Count of Limburg and Bronckhorst, Lord of Styrum, Wisch, Borkelo and Gemen,

Hereditary Banner-Lord of the Principality of Gelderland and the County of Zütphen


- Mansfeld: the HRE Prince and Prince of Fondi, Count and Lord of Mansfeld, Noble Lord of Heldrungen, Seeburg and Schraplau, Lord of the Lordship of Dobrzisch, Neuhaus and Arnstein.


- Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Charles XI and Charles XII, Kings of Sweden):King of Sweden, the Gothes, the Wendes, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Skane(Skåne), Estland, Livland, Karelia, Bremen, Verden, Stetin, Pomerania, the Kashubes and the Wendes, Prince of Rügen, Lord of Ingermanland and Wissmar, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Duke of Bavaria, Jülich, Kleve and Berg, etc.


- Nassau-Orange (William-Henry, the future king of England William III) Prince of Orange and Nassau, Count of Katzenellebogen, Vianden, Dietz, Lingen, Mörs, Buren, Leerdam, &c.

Marquis of the Vere en Vlissingen, Lord and Baron of Breda, the City of Grave and Lands of Cuycq, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Cranendoncq,

Warneston, Arlay, Noseroy, St. Vith, Daesburgh, Polanen, Willemstadt, Niervaert, Ysselsteyn, St. Maertensdijck, Steenbergen, Geertruydenberge, Turenhout, Zevenbergen, of the Upper and Lower Swaluwen, Naeltwijck, Soest, Baren, ter Eem, Immenes, &c. Hereditaty Burgrave of Antwerp and Besançon, Hereditaty Marshall of Holland, Governer and Hereditaty-Stadhouder of Gelderland and County of Zutphen, Holland, Zealand, West-Frisia, Utrecht and Over-Yissel, and Land of Drenthe, Hereditaty-Captain-General, and Admiral of the United Netherlands.


- Wallenstein/Waldstein (Albrecht, 1630) : Duke of Mecklenburg, Friedland, Sagan, Greater Glagau, Prince of the Wendes, Count of Schwerin, Lord of the Lands of Rostock and Stargard.


                                 Male names
 Abel hebreiskt
 Abraham hebreiskt
 Adam hebreiskt
 Adolf tyskt
 Adrian av latinets Adrianus
 Albert tyskt; jfr Albrekt
 Albrekt sidoform till Albert
 Albin av latinets Albinus
 Alexander grekiskt; jfr Sander
 Alexius latinsk form av ett grekiskt namn
 Alf nordiskt; vanligast i Bohuslän och Dalsland, ibland i formen Ahl
 Alfred engelskt
 Algot nordiskt; vanligast i Götaland
 Alrik nordiskt
 Alvaster fornsvenskt (möjligen av äldre Arnfast; jfr Arvast); förekom i Östergötland
 Amadeus latinskt
 Amandus latinskt
 Ambjörn nordiskt; vanligast i Västsverige
 Ambrosius romerskt av grekiskt ursprung
 Amund nordiskt
 Ananias hebreiskt; förekom i Södermanland
 Anders svensk form av Andreas; mycket vanligt i hela Sverige
 Andor nordiskt; vanligast i Västsverige
 Andreas grekiskt; jfr Anders
 Anifas okänt ursprung; förekom i Medelpad och på Åland på 1700-talet
 Anselm tyskt
 Anton tysk kortform för latinets Antonius
 Anund nordiskt; dialektala former: Åne, Åner
 Arent lågtysk form av Arnold
 Arne nordiskt; förekom i västra och norra Sverige
 Arnfinn fornnordiskt; förekom i Jämtland
 Arnold tyskt; jfr Arent
 Aron hebreiskt
 Artur engelskt av keltiskt ursprung
 Arvast fornsvenskt (av äldre Arnfast); förekom i Skåne
 Arvid nordiskt
 Asbjörn fornsvenskt
 Asgärd fornsvenskt
 Asmund nordiskt; vanligast i Skåne och Västsverige
 Assar nordiskt (danskt och svenskt); vanligast i Skåne; jfr Sasser
 Atte nordiskt (ursprungligen smekform för Algot, Arvast); vanligast i Värmland
 August av latinets Augustus, en avledning av Augustinus
 Augustin av latinets Augustinus
 Axel nordisk form av bibliska Absalon
 Baltsar babyloniskt
 Bartold tysk ombildning av apostelnamnet Bartolomeus
 Bastian kortform för Sebastian; förekom i Skåne
 Bengt svensk form av latinets Benedictus
 Benjamin hebreiskt
 Bernhard tyskt; jfr Bernt
 Bernt lågtysk form av Bernhard
 Bertil tyskt
 Bertram tyskt
 Birger nordiskt; förekom bland allmogen i många former: Berge, Beriel, Birgel, Böril jämte Börje
 Björn nordiskt
 Blasius latinskt
 Bo nordiskt
 Bonde nordiskt; vanligast i Skåne och Småland
 Botel skånsk och gotländsk form av Botolf, ibland stavat Båtel
 Botolf ursprungligen fornengelskt; vanligast i Svealand och på Gotland
 Botvid nordiskt; vanligt i östra Götaland och på Gotland
 Brage nordiskt
 Brodde fornnordiskt; vanligt i Jämtland, Småland och Skåne
 Bror nordiskt, av äldre Broder; förekom i Småland och Skåne
 Bruno forntyskt
 Bryngel dialektal form av Brynolf; vanligast i Västsverige
 Brynolf nordiskt; under medeltiden populärt i Skara stift
 Brynte smekform för Brynjulf och Brynolf; mest använt i Västsverige
 Bård fornsvenskt (av äldre Bardh); förekom i Norrland och Dalsland (dialektalt stavat Båhl)
 Börje yngre form av Birger
 C-, se K-
 Dan kan ha olika ursprung: dels fornsvenskt, dels hebreiskt och dels en kortform för Daniel; förekom
 i Östergötland
 Daniel hebreiskt; jfr Dan
 David hebreiskt
 Detlof tyskt
 Didrik tyskt; förekommer emellanåt stavat Tidrik
 Dionysius helgonnamn av grekiskt ursprung
 Djur möjligen en variant av Gjord; förekom i Småland och Blekinge
 Dominikus latinskt
 Ebbe nordiskt; smekform för Esbjörn och Ärnbjörn
 Eberhard tyskt
 Eckard sidofirm till Eggert
 Edgar engelskt
 Edmund engelskt
 Edvard engelskt
 Edvin engelskt
 Efraim hebreiskt
 Eggert tyskt; jfr Eckard
 Egidius helgonnamn av grekiskt ursprung; jfr Gilius, Gillis, Ilian
 Egil västnordiskt
 Einar nordiskt
 Ejlert tyskt
 Elf fornsvenskt (av äldre Elif; jfr Elver); förekom i Östergötland 
 Elias hebreiskt (bibliskt)
 Elling variant av Erling; vanligt i Härjedalen
 Elof nordiskt (av äldre Elef); vanligast i Värmland
 Elver nordiskt (troligen av ett äldre Elif; jfr Elf); förekom i Småland
 Emanuel hebreiskt
 Embrikt dialektal form av Engelbrekt
 Emil fransk form av latinets Æmilius
 Enar nordiskt; vanligast i Jämtland och Värmland
 Enevald sannolikt ursprungligen forntyskt
 Engelbert tyskt; variant av Engelbrekt
 Engelbrekt tyskt; vanligt i Dalarna och södra Norrland; jfr Embrikt
 Enok hebreiskt (bibliskt)
 Erasmus äldre variant av Rasmus
 Erengisle tyskt; vanligt i Småland
 Erhard tyskt
 Erik nordiskt; mycket vanligt i hela Sverige
 Erland nordiskt
 Erling nordiskt
 Ernfrid tyskt
 Ernst tyskt
 Esaias grekiskt form av ett hebreiskt namn
 Esbjörn nordiskt; vanligt i Jämtland och Västsverige
 Eskil nordiskt
 Eugen fransk form av latinets Eugenius, ursprungligen ett grekiskt namn
 Evald tyskt
 Evert lågtysk form av Eberhard
 Fabian av latinets Fabianus
 Fader fornsvenskt
 Fajer skånsk form av Fader
 Fale fornsvenskt (av äldre Fardhe); vanligt i mellersta Norrland
 Faltin variant av Valentin
 Farman fornsvenskt
 Faste fornnordiskt; vanligt i Jämtland
 Felix latinskt
 Ferdinand tyskt
 Filip grekiskt
 Filpus fornsvensk form av Filip
 Finnvid fornsvenskt
 Folke nordiskt; vanligt i Östergötland och Småland
 Frans tysk form av latinets Fransiskus
 Fredrik tyskt
 Frenne yngre form av nordiska Frände; vanligast i Skåne, främst Göinge
 Fridolf tyskt
 Fritjof nordiskt
 Frits tysk smekform av Friederich
 Frosten variant av Frösten; vanligast i norra Skåne och norra Östergötland
 Frösten fornsvenskt; förekom i södra Östergötland
 Gabriel hebreiskt
 Gamaliel hebreiskt; förekom i Östergötland på 1600-talet
 Gammal fornsvenskt
 Georg av latinets Georgius, ursprungligen grekiskt; jfr Jurgen och Jörgen
 Gerhard tyskt
 Germund nordiskt; vanligast i östra Götaland
 Gert kortform av Gerhard
 Gertorn fornsvenskt; vanligast i Sydsverige, ibland skrivet Gerton eller Hjerton
 Gideon hebreiskt
 Gilbert germanskt
 Gilius latinskt, ombildning av helgonnamnet Egidius
 Gillis svensk ombildning av franska Giles, latinets Gilius
 Gisle fornsvenskt; vanligast i Skåne och Småland, ibland i formen Gissel
 Gjord fornsvenskt; vanligast i Småland och mellersta Norrland i många olika varianter: Gjohl, Gjöl,
 Gjur, Jurd, Jord
 Gottfrid tyskt
 Gotthard tyskt
 Gottskalk tyskt
 Gregers svensk form av Gregorius
 Gregorius latinsk form av ett grekiskt namn
 Grels yngre form av Gregers; vanligast i Norrland och Finland
 Grim nordiskt; förekom i Bohuslän
 Gude kortform av namn med förleden Gud-; förekom i Bohuslän
 Gudmund fornnordiskt
 Gullbrand fornsvenskt; vanligast i Västsverige
 Gulle smekform av Gullik (i äldre tider också för andra namn på Gud-, Gull-)
 Gullik fornsvenskt (av äldre Gudhlek); vanligast i mellersta Norrland
 Gumme smekform för Gudmund; vanligast i östra Småland och på Öland
 Gunbjörn nordiskt; förekom i Härjedalen
 Gunnar nordiskt
 Gustav svenskt
 Guttorm fornnordiskt; vanligast i Härjedalen och Bohuslän
 Gälar fornsvenskt (av äldre Gärdar); förekom i Svealand
 Göran yngre form av Örjan
 Götar nordiskt; vanligast i Västergötland och Bohuslän
 Göte nordiskt
 Habord svensk form av Hagbard; vanligast i Mellansverige, ibland stavat Habbol, Habor 
 Hakvin av latinets Haquinus (= Håkan)
 Halle kortform för namn på Hal- och smekform för Harald; förekom på Gotland
 Halsten nordiskt; vanligast i Värmland
 Halvard nordiskt; vanligast i västra och norra Sverige (särskilt Västerdalarna) och på Gotland; jfr
 Halvor norsk form av Halvard; vanligast i norra Bohuslän
 Hammen nordiskt (av äldre Hamund); förekom i Skåne
 Hans ursprungligen tysk kortform av Johannes
 Harald nordiskt
 Hartman smekform för Hartvig
 Hartvig tyskt; jfr Hartman
 Helge nordiskt; vanligast i Västsverige och Norrland i dialektala varianter som Helle, Hälje, etc
 Helmer tyskt
 Hemming nordiskt
 Henning tyskt
 Henrik tyskt; förekommer i många former: Hendrik, Hindrik, Hinder, etc
 Herbert tyskt
 Herlek fornsvenskt
 Herlof fornsvenskt
 Herman tyskt
 Hermod nordiskt; förekom i Skåne
 Herse sannolikt en smekform för fornsvenska Hersten; förekom i Norrland
 Hieronymus grekiskt
 Hildebrand tyskt; vanligast i norra Östergötland
 Holger variant av Holmger; vanligast i Sydsverige
 Holmger nordiskt; förekom i flera varianter: Holger, Homger, Honger, Hollinger, Holing
 Holsten nordiskt (av äldre Holmsten); vanligast i Östergötland och Bergslagen
 Holvaster nordiskt (av äldre Holmfast); förekom på Södertörn
 Hubert tyskt
 Hugo tyskt
 Håkan nordiskt
 Ilian svensk form av tyska Gilgen, Ilgen, ombildning av Egidius; jfr Gilius och Gillis
 Inge nordiskt; vanligast i Östergötland
 Ingel nordiskt; yngre form för Ingjald och Ingolf
 Ingeman skånsk form av Ingemund
 Ingemar nordiskt; vanligast i Medelpad
 Ingemund nordiskt
 Ingevald nordiskt
 Ingolf nordiskt; vanligast i Östergötland
 Ingvar nordiskt; vanligast i Skåne i former som Ingor och Inger
 Isak bibliskt
 Isidor grekiskt
 Israel hebreiskt
 Ivar nordiskt
 Jakob hebreiskt; smekform: Jeppe
 Jan smekform för Johan
 Jarl nordiskt
 Jeppa smekform för Jakob; varianter: Jeppe och Jep
 Jeremias hebreiskt
 Jesper dansk form av tyska Jasper (samma namn som Kasper)
 Joakim hebreiskt
 Jockum dansk och tysk form för Joakim
 Joel hebreiskt
 Joen kortformer för Jonas eller Johannes; vanligast på 1500- och 1600-talet
 Johan svensk form av Johannes; mycket vanligt namn i hela Sverige; jfr Jan
 Johannes grekisk form av ett ursprungligen hebreiskt namn; jfr Jan, Joen, Johan, Jöns
 Jon i äldre tid en sidoform till Johan (Joan, Joen), på 1700-talet kortform för Jonas
 Jonas hebreisk kortform av Johannes; vanligast i Skåne och Norrland
 Jonatan hebreiskt
 Jordan germanskt; förekom i Värmland
 Josef hebreiskt
 Josias hebreiskt
 Jost variant av grekiska Joducus
 Julius latinskt
 Jurgen tysk form av Georg
 Justus latinskt
 Järle fornsvenskt
 Jöns svensk form av Johannes; jfr Jösse
 Jörgen dansk form av Georg
 Jösse smekform för Jöns
 Karl nordiskt
 Karsten lågtysk form av Kristian; skrivs ibland Kasten
 Kasper tysk sidoform till Jasper (Jesper), ursprungligen ett persiskt namn
 Kersten [tj-] sannolikt en form av Kristian; förekom i Skåne
 Kettil nordiskt; vanligast i Västergötland
 Kjell yngre form av Kettil; vanligast i Jämtland och Skåne
 Kjellar fornsvenskt; vanligast i Västergötland
 Kjellbjörn fornsvenskt
 Kjellmund fornsvenskt
 Kjellvast fornsvenskt (av äldre Kjellfast)
 Klas tysk kortform av Nikolaus
 Klemens latinskt
 Klement äldre sidoform till Klemens; vanligt i Norrland och länge ett populärt lapskt förnamn;
 variant: Klemet
 Knut nordiskt
 Konrad tyskt
 Konstantin latinskt
 Kornelius latinskt; vanligast i Västsverige och Skåne
 Kristen sidoform till Kristian; vanligt i Bohuslän och Skåne
 Kristiern äldre sidoform till Kristian
 Kristian av latinets Christianus; jfr Kersten, Kristen, Kristiern
 Kristman fornsvenskt
 Kristoffer ursprungligen grekiskt
 Kurt lågtysk form av Konrad
 Käll- se Kjell-
 König tyskt; vanligast i övre Norrland
 Lage nordiskt; vanligast i Småland
 Lambert tyskt
 Lars svensk form av latinets Laurentius
 Laurens liksom Lars från latinets Laurentius
 Lave nydansk form av Lage; vanligast i Skåne
 Leander grekiskt
 Lek fornsvenskt; förekom i västra Värmland
 Lennart lågtysk form av Leonhard
 Leonard tyskt
 Lindorm nordiskt
 Linnar dialektal form av Lindorm; vanligast i Västergötland
 Linus latinskt
 Lorens tysk form av latinets Laurentius (= Lars)
 Ludvig tyskt
 Lukas grekiskt
 Lyder tyskt
 Magnus latinskt; jfr Måns 
 Malkolm keltiskt
 Malte danskt (tyskt)
 Manne fornsvenskt; förekom i Skåne; i senare tid också smekform för Emanuel, Manfred, etc
 Marius latinskt
 Markus latinskt
 Martin av latinets Martinus
 Mats svensk form av Mattias; mycket vanligt, särskilt östra Sverige
 Matteus latinsk form av samma namn som Mattias
 Mattias hebreiskt
 Maurits av latinets Mauritius
 Melker hebreiskt
 Mickel svensk form av Mikael
 Mikael hebreiskt
 Moses bibliskt; vanligast i Norrland och bland judar
 Måns svensk form av Magnus
 Mårten svensk form av Martin; vanligast i Norrland och Skåne
 Nanne fornsvenskt, kortform av Nannulf
 Napoleon italienskt
 Natanael hebreiskt
 Niklas av äldre Nikolaus
 Nikodemus grekiskt
 Nikolaus grekiskt
 Nils svensk form av Nikolaus; mycket vanligt i så gott som hela Sverige
 Njord av omstritt ursprung
 Odert tyskt
 Ola skånsk och västsvensk form av Olof
 Olaus latinsk form av Olof
 Ole dansk-norsk form för Olof; vanligast i Bohuslän
 Oliver franskt
 Olof nordiskt; mycket vanligt i hela Sverige
 Ored skånskt
 Orm fornsvenskt
 Oskar engelskt, sannolikt av keltiskt ursprung 
 Ossian keltiskt
 Otto tyskt
 Ove danskt (motsvarar svenska Åke); förekom i Skåne
 Patrik engelskt
 Paul tysk och fransk form av latinets Paulus, använd i Sverige sedan 1600-talet
 Peder fornsvensk (och dansk) form av Petrus
 Per svensk form av Petrus; mycket vanligt i hela Sverige
 Pet(t)er nysvenska former av Petrus; varianterna Petter och Peter är dialektala skillnader
 Petrus grekiskt
 Polykarpus grekiskt-latinskt
 Pontus grekiskt
 Pål svensk form av Paul(us); vanligast i Jämtland och Skåne
 Påske nordisk form av latinets Pascalis; vanligast i Bohuslän
 Påvel svensk form av Paul(us)
 Rafael hebreiskt
 Ragvald nordiskt (av äldre Ragnvald); jfr Ral, Ravel
 Ral kortform av Ragvald; förekom på Vikbolandet
 Ramund fornsvenskt; vanligast i Östsverige
 Rasmus grekiskt; vanligast på Gotland och i Bohuslän
 Ravel kortform av Ragvald
 Reer västsvensk variant av norska Reidar
 Reimund tyskt
 Reineke smekform för Reinhard
 Reinhard tyskt; jfr Reineke
 Reinhold tyskt; variant: Renholt
 Rikard tyskt; vanligast i Jämtland, stundom stavat Rekard, Rekål
 Robert tyskt
 Roger engelskt
 Rol kortform av Rolf eller Rolof
 Roland tyskt
 Rolf nordiskt (av äldre Rodulf och Rodlef) eller lågtyskt (av Rudolf)
 Rolof lågtysk form av Rudolf
 Ruben hebreiskt
 Rudolf tyskt (av äldre Hrodulf)
 Rutger tyskt
 Sakarias hebreiskt
 Sakris sidoform till Sakarias
 Salmund nordisk form av Salomon
 Salomon grekiskt form av ett hebreiskt namn
 Samson hebreiskt; förekom i Jämtland och Blekinge
 Samuel hebreiskt
 Sander kortform till Alexander
 Sante fornsvenskt kortnamn till Alesant (= Alexander) eller Finzant (= Vincent)
 Sasser smekform för Assar, använd i Skåne
 Sebastian grekiskt
 Seger norrländsk form av Sigurd
 Segol västsvensk form av Sigurd
 Set hebreiskt
 Seved nysvensk form av Sigvid
 Severin latinskt
 Sibbe fornsvensk smekform av Sigbjörn
 Siffer äldre, dialektal sidoform till Sigfrid
 Sigbjörn nordiskt; förekommer ofta i formen Sibbjörn
 Sigfrid tyskt
 Sigge smekform för namn på Sig-
 Sigleif nordiskt; förekom på Gotland
 Sigmund nordiskt
 Sigurd nordiskt
 Sigvard nordiskt (germanskt)
 Simon grekiskt form av hebreiska Simeon
 Sivert sidoform till Sigvard; vanligast i Bohuslän och Dalsland i många varianter: Sivar, Sivard,
 Sixten fornsvenskt, av äldre Sigsten
 Sjul dialektal, främst norrländsk form av Sigurd
 Sjunne fornsvenskt; vanligast i Skåne
 Sone sidoform till Sune; vanligast i Skåne och Blekinge i olika varianter som Såne, Sånne, Söne
 Spjälle smekform för fornsvenska Spjälbode; typiskt för Norrland
 Staffan nordisk variant av latinets Stephanus
 Stefan latinskt namn av grekiskt ursprung
 Stellan ovisst ursprung
 Sten nordiskt; vanligast i Norrland
 Stenkil nordiskt; förekom i Skåne
 Strånge nordiskt (möjligen danskt), av äldre Strange; förekom i Uppland (se Släkt och hävd 1969
 sid. 247–248)
 Sture svenskt
 Styrbjörn fornsvenskt; ibland skrivet Storbjörn, Störbjörn
 Störje yngre form av fornsvenska Styrger; förekom i Småland
 Sune fornsvenskt; vanligast i östra och södra Götaland
 Svante svensk kortform av vendiska Svantepolk
 Sven nordiskt; mycket vanligt namn, särskilt i Syd- och Västsverige
 Sverker svenskt
 Sverkil variant av Sverker, vanligast i Hälsingland
 Sylvester latinskt
 Sören dansk form av latinets Severinus; vanligast i södra och västra Sverige
 Tage nordiskt (danskt) namn; vanligast i Skåne
 Teodor grekiskt
 Teofil grekiskt
 Teus kortform för Matteus
 Tideman tyskt (smekform för Didrik); förekom i Norrland
 Tobias grekisk form av ett hebreiskt namn
 Tol dialektal form av Tord
 Tolf fornsvenskt (av äldre Torulf)
 Tolle fornsvensk smekform för Torlef; vanligast i Bohuslän
 Tomas grekiskt
 Torbjörn nordiskt; vanligast i Västsverige
 Tord nordiskt (av ett äldre Thorfridh)
 Tore nordiskt (av ett äldre Thorir)
 Torger nordiskt; förkom i Bohuslän; jfr Törje 
 Torkel nordiskt (av äldre Torkettil)
 Torsten nordiskt
 Torvald nordiskt
 Toste smekform för Torsten
 Tove smeknamn för namn som Torvald och Torvid
 Troed sidoform till Trued
 Tron nordiskt; sentida variant av Trond, förekom i Härjedalen och Bohuslän
 Trotte nordiskt; vanligast i Värend
 Trued skånsk form av fornsvenska Torgot; jfr Troed
 Truls skånsk kortform av fornsvenska Torgils
 Tulson förekom i södra Småland och norra Skåne (Göinge)
 Ture sidoform till Tore
 Tuve sydsvensk sidoform till Tove
 Tyke nordiskt (danskt)
 Tyko latinisering av Tyke
 Tyres dialektal form av fornsvenska Tyrgils (variant av Torgils)
 Tönnes tyskt
 Töres dialektal form av fornsvenska Tyrgils
 Törje dialektal form av Torger
 Udd fornsvenskt
 Ulf fornsvenskt
 Ulrik tyskt
 Une fornsvenskt; vanligast i Norrland
 Uno latinisering av Une
 Urban latinskt
 Valdemar ryskt
 Valentin latinskt
 Valfrid tyskt
 Valter tyskt
 Vaste kortform av fornsvenska namn på -vast (äldre -fast); vanligast i Östergötland
 Velam variant av Vilhelm
 Ventsel slavisk kortform av Wenceslaw
 Verner tyskt
 Vernik diminutivform av Verner; förekom i Gästrikland
 Vibjörn fornsvenskt; förekom i Östergötland
 Vidrik tyskt
 Vifast fornsvenskt; förekom i Hälsingland på 1500-talet
 Viktor latinskt
 Vilhelm tyskt
 Vilken tyskt; förekom i Norrland
 Vincent latinskt; förekom i Norrland och bland vallonska släkter
 Vollemar variant av Valdemar; förekom i Göinge i Skåne
 Vollrat tyskt
 Volmar lågtysk form av Valdemar
 Volter lågtysk form av Valter
 Ygge yngre form av Ödger; förekom i Småland (Ydre)
 Ygger yngre form av Ödger; förekom i Södermanland
 Yngve nordiskt
 Z-, se S-
 Åbjörn nordiskt; vanligast i Småland
 Åke nordiskt; vanligast i södra och sydöstra Sverige
 Åsle smekform för fornnordiska Aslak och Aslev; förekom i Småland
 Åsmund nysvensk form av Asmund
 Åstrad nordiskt; vanligast i Skåne
 Åsvid fornsvenskt; förekom i Norrland på 1500-talet
 Ödger fornsvenskt
 Ögge yngre form av Ödger; förekom i Småland (Möre)
 Öjar nordiskt; förekom i östra Götaland
 Önne yngre form av fornsvenska Önd(er), som också förekom stavat Öne, Önde
 Önnert ombildning av fornsvenska Önd(er)
 Örjan fornsvensk form av lågtyska Jurian, Jurien, en sidoform till Georg; jfr Göran
 Östen nordiskt; vanligast i Norrland
 Övid nordiskt; vanligast i Östergötland
                                 Female names
 Abluna svensk form av Apollonia; förekom i Norrland
 Adela franskt och ursprungligen forntyskt
 Adolfina bildning av Adolf
 Adriana feminin form av Adrian
 Agata grekiskt; jfr Agda
 Agda svensk form av Agata; skånsk variant: Ajda
 Agnes grekiskt; jfr Agneta
 Agneta latinsk ombildning av Agnes
 Albertina bildning av tyska Albert
 Alexandra feminin form av Alexander
 Alfrid fornsvenskt; förekom ännu på 1700-talet
 Alfrida ersatte på 1800-talet den äldre formen Alfrid
 Ali förekommer i Skåne (Vemmenhög och Ljunits)
 Alma spanskt
 Amalia ursprungligen gotiskt
 Amanda latinskt
 Amborg västsvensk form av forn svenska Arnborg
 Andrietta fransk diminutiv till Andrea (feminin form av Andreas)
 Anna hebreiskt; mycket vanligt i hela Sverige
 Annetta franskt, diminutiv till Anna
 Annika tyskt, diminutiv till Anna
 Antoinetta franskt (Antoinette), diminutiv till Antoine (= Anton)
 Antonia latinskt, feminin form av Antonius (= Anton)
 Apollonia grekiskt; jfr Abluna
 Arna fornsvenskt (kortform för namn på Arn-, Arin- ’örn’)
 Augusta latinskt, feminin form av Augustus (= August)
 Aurora latinskt
 Barbara grekiskt; jfr Barbro
 Barbro svensk form av Barbara; vanligast i Dalarna och Norrland
 Batseba bibliskt
 Beata latinskt
 Benedikta latinskt; jfr Bengta
 Bengta försvenskning av Benedikta; vanligast i Skåne
 Benjamina feminin form av Benjamin
 Bereta dialektal form av Birgitta, förkom i många stavningar: Berita, Berit, Beret, Bäret
 Bernhardina feminin form av Bernhard
 Berta kortform för forntyska namn på Ber(h)t-
 Betty engelsk smekform för Elisabet
 Birgitta keltiskt; jfr Bereta, Brita, Britta, Börta
 Boel skånskt, ursprungligen dansk form av Bothild
 Bolla dialektal smekform för Ingeborg (och ibland Botilla); vanligast i Västergötland
 Bothild nordiskt; jfr Boel, Botil, Botilda
 Botil yngre form av Bothild; vanligast i västra och södra Sverige
 Botilda latinisering av Bothild
 Brit(t)a kortformer av Birgitta (äldre Brigitta); ett av de vanligaste namnen i Sverige
 Börta västsvensk form av Birgitta
 C- jfr K-
 Cecilia latinskt; jfr Sissa och Sissela
 Charlotta franskt (Charlotte)
 Dammö variant av slaviska Dagmar; förekom i Småland (se Släkt och hävd 1987 sid 248)
 Desideria latinskt
 Diana latinskt
 Dordi svensk form av Dorotea; vanligast i mellersta Norrland
 Dorotea grekiskt; jfr Dordi
 Ebba troligen kortform av forntyska namn på Egil-
 Edla tysk sidoform till Adela
 Eleonora romanskt, sannolikt av arabiskt ursprung
 Elin försvenskad form av Helena
 Elisabet hebreiskt; jfr Lisa, Lisbet, Lisbeta, Lisken
 Eljena skånsk form av Helena
 Ella försvenskad form av Helena, men även kortform för namn som Eleonora, Elin, Elisabet och
 Ellena variant av Eljena brukad i Skytts härad
 Ellika tysk diminutivform till Elin och Ella
 Ellinor försvenskning av engelska Eleanor
 Elna sydsvensk form av Elin
 Elsa förkortning av Elzaby, en tysk form av Elisabet
 Elvira spanskt, troligen av arabiskt ursprung
 Emelia franskt (Emelie), sidoform till Amelia, Amelie (Amalia)
 Emerentia latinskt
 Emfrid fornsvenskt; förekom i mellersta Norrland
 Emilia franskt (Emilie), feminin form av latinets Æmilius (Emil)
 Emma tyskt, kortform av namn på Irmin-
 Engel tysk kortform för namn som Engelborg
 Engelborg tyskt
 Engla ombildning av Engel, men också en variant av Ingel (dialektal form av Ingegärd)
 Eriana ovisst ursprung (tyskt?)
 Erika feminin form av Erik
 Ernestina franskt, bildning av Ernst (äldre Ernest)
 Ester bibliskt, troligen av persiskt ursprung
 Estrid fornnordiskt
 Eufemia grekiskt
 Eufrosyna grekiskt
 Eugenia feminin form av Eugen
 Eva hebreiskt
 Fanny engelskt
 Filippa feminin form av Filip
 Flora latinskt
 Florentina feminin form av latinska Florentinus (helgonnamn)
 Fransiska feminin form av Fransiskus
 Fredrika feminin form av Fredrik
 Freja nordiskt
 Frida nordiskt (även kortform för tyska namn på Fride-)
 Gabriella feminin form av Gabriel
 Georgina feminin form av Georg
 Gerborg tyskt; förekom på Gotland
 Gertrud tyskt
 Gesa tyskt, smekform för namn på Ger-; vanligast i Skåne
 Geska diminutiv till Gesa
 Gisela tyskt
 Gloria latinskt
 Greta kortform av Margareta; vanligt på 1700-talet
 Gudborg fornsvenskt
 Gudlög fornsvenskt; vanligast i Dalarna och Norrland; jfr Gölig, Gölin, Göle
 Gudrun nordiskt; jfr Guru
 Gunborg nordiskt; vanligast i Jämtland 
 Gunhild nordiskt
 Gunilla latinisering av Gunhild
 Gunnel yngre form av Gunhild; förekom i en rad dialektala varianter: Gunnel, Gunnela, Gunnil,
 Gunnila, Gunla
 Gunnur nordiskt (ursprungligen Gunvor); vanligast i Väst- och Sydsverige
 Guru yngre variant av Gudrun; förekom i Bohuslän och Härjedalen
 Gustava feminin form av Gustav
 Gyrid nordiskt; vanligast i Östergötland och Småland
 Göle ångermanländsk variant av Gudlög
 Gölig variant av Gudlög i Hälsingland
 Gölin yngre form av Gudlög; förekom i Norrland
 Görel nordiskt
 Görvel danskt
 Göta svenskt
 Götilda svenskt
 Hamfrid sidoform till Holmfrid; förekom i Västergötland
 Hanna hebreiskt namn, men vanligare kortform för Johanna
 Harriet engelsk form av franska Henriette
 Hebbla okänt ursprung; förekom i Östergötland och Finland
 Hedda smekform för Hedvig
 Hedvig tyskt; jfr Hedda
 Helena grekiskt; jfr Elin, Eljena, Elna, Lena
 Helga feminin form av Helge
 Helvig tyskt
 Henrietta franskt (Henriette), feminin form av Henri (= Henrik)
 Henrika feminin form av Henrik
 Hilda nordiskt
 Hildegard tyskt
 Hildur nordiskt
 Hilla försvenskning av danska Helle
 Hillevi dansk ombildning av Helvig
 Hilma troligen feminin form av Hilmar
 Holmfrid fornsvenskt; jfr Hamfrid
 Hulda nordiskt
 Ida tyskt
 Iliana variant av Juliana, men också associerat med helgonnamnet Ilian
 Ilja kortform av Iliana; förekom på Åland
 Inga kortform av fornsvenska namn på Inge-
 Ingar sydsvenskt, antingen yngre variant av Ingi(w)ara eller av Ing(e)gard, en sidoform till
 Ingeborg nordiskt; jfr Bolla
 Ingefrid nordiskt; förekom i Östergötland; jfr Ingrid
 Ingegärd nordiskt; dialektala varianter: Ingerd, Ingiärd, Inger, Inggiäl, Ingiel, Ingel, etc 
 Ingelöv nordiskt; förekom i Småland
 Ingemo fornsvenskt; förekom i Småland
 Inger i södra Sverige en ombildning av Ingegerd, i östra och norra Sverige en talspråksform för
 Ingrid sammandragning av Ingefrid
 Irene grekiskt
 Isabella spansk-portugisisk form av Elisabet
 Jakobina feminin form av Jakob
 Jana kortform av Juliana, Mariana, Ottiliana, även feminin form av Jan
 Janna smekform för Johanna
 Jenny engelsk smekform för Jane (= Johanna), även smekform för Eugenia
 Johanna feminin form av Johannes; jfr Hanna, Janna
 Jorid nordiskt
 Josefina feminin form av Josef
 Judit hebreiskt
 Julia feminin form av Julius, även kortform av Juliana
 Juliana feminin form av Julianus (romerskt kejsarnamn); jfr Iliana, Ilja, Julia
 Justina feminin form av Justus och Justinus
 Kajsa smekform för Karin
 Karin svensk form av Katarina
 Karna sydsvensk form av Karin
 Karolina latinskt
 Katarina grekiskt; jfr Karin, Kajsa, Karna
 Kerstin nysvensk form av Kristina
 Kerstina skånsk form av Kristina
 Kjella feminin form av Kjell eller kortform av Kjellög; förekom i Värend
 Kjellög yngre form av fornsvenska Kettillög; jfr Kjella
 Klara latinskt
 Kornelia latinskt
 Konstantia latinskt
 Kristensa romansk diminutiv till namn på Krist-; förekom i Skåne
 Kristina latinskt; jfr Kerstin, Kerstina, Stina
 Laura kortform av Laurentia
 Laurentia feminin form av Laurentius (latinsk form av Lars)
 Lea hebreiskt
 Lena kortform av Magdalena och Helena
 Lina kortform av namn som Adelina, Evelina, Karolina, Nikolina
 Linda kortform av namn som Belinda, Rosalinda, Teolinda
 Linnea svenskt (av blomnamnet linnea, uppkallad efter Carl von Linné som före adlandet hette
 Linnaeus, ett namn som tagits efter en åldrig lind vid fädernegården)
 Lisa kortform för Elisabet och Lisbeta
 Lisbet(a) försvenskning av Elisabet
 Lisette fransk diminutiv till Elisabet
 Lisken lågtyskt, diminutiv till Elisabet
 Lotta kortform av Charlotta
 Louise franskt, feminin form av Louis (= Ludvig)
 Lovisa försvenskad form av Louise
 Lucia latinskt; vanligast i Jämtland; dialektal form: Lussi
 Lukretia latinskt
 Lydia grekiskt
 Magdalena hebreiskt; jfr Malena, Malin, Lena
 Magnhild nordiskt; vanligast i Skåne (ibland med formen Magnilla) samt Jämtland och Härjedalen
 Maja svensk smekform för Maria
 Malena svensk form av Magdalena; vanligast i Skåne
 Malin svensk form av Magdalena
 Maren dansk form av Marina; vanligast på Gotland och i Skåne
 Margareta sengrekiskt namn, bildat av ett persiskt ord; jfr Greta, Marit, Märet, Märta
 Margit svensk form av Margareta
 Maria grekisk form av ett hebreiskt namn; mycket vanligt i hela Sverige; jfr Maja
 Mariana feminin form av latinska Marianus
 Marianne franskt, diminutiv till Maria
 Marina latinskt (bildat till substantivet ’mare’, hav); jfr Maren, Marna
 Marit yngre form av Margit
 Marna skånsk form av Marina
 Marta bibliskt namn, men kan också vara en kortform för Margareta (via Margta, Mareta, Marita)
 och Martina
 Martina feminin form av Martin
 Matilda latinsk form av forntyska Mahthilt; jfr Mektild
 Mektild tyskt, sidoform till forntyska Mahthilt; jfr Matilda och Metta
 Metta smekform för Mektild och Märta; vanligast i Skåne
 Mikaela feminin form av Mikael
 Märet sidoform till Märta; vanligast i Jämtland och Härjedalen
 Märta ursprungligen dansk form av Margareta; jfr Märet och Metta
 Natalia latinskt
 Nilla kortform av Pernilla; vanligast i Skåne
 Nora kortform av Eleonora
 Oleana feminin form av västsvenska Ole (= Olof); jfr Olena
 Olena yngre form av Oleana
 Olga ryskt (ombildning av nordiska Helga)
 Olivia latinskt
 Olu variant av Olöf
 Olöf kvinnlig motsvarighet till mansnamnet Olof; vanligast i Sydsverige
 Oskara feminin form av Oskar
 Ottiliana latinisk form av forntyska Odila
 Ottilia variant av Ottiliana
 Paulina feminin form av latinets Paulinus (Paulus, Paul)
 Pernilla yngre form av Petronella; vanligast i Skåne; jfr Nilla
 Petronella latinskt
 Priska feminin form av latinets Priscus
 Ragnborg fornsvenskt; jfr Ramborg
 Ragnfrid fornsvenskt; jfr Ramfrid
 Ragnhild nordiskt; yngre form: Rangela med flera varianter som Ragnil, Ragnila, Rangel
 Rakel hebreiskt
 Ramborg yngre form av Ragnborg
 Ramfrid yngre form av Ragnfrid
 Rangela yngre form av Ragnhild; vanligast i Västsverige
 Rebecka hebreiskt
 Regina latinskt
 Renata latinskt
 Rigmor tyskt; förekom i Uppland
 Risa tyskt; förekom i Skåne
 Rosa latinskt (substantivet rosa ’ros’), även kortform för namn som Rosalia, Rosaura, Rosalinda,
 Rosina latinskt (avlett av rosa ’ros’), även kortform för Eufrosyna (Eufrosina)
 Rosita spansk diminutiv till Rosa och Rosina
 Runa fornsvenskt
 Rut hebreiskt
 Rådgärd fornsvenskt; vanligast i mellersta Norrland (ofta stavat Rågierdh, Rågiähl, etc)
 Sabina latinskt
 Sally engelsk smekform för Sara
 Sanna kortform för Susanna
 Sara hebreiskt; vanligast i Norrland
 Seborg nordiskt; vanligast i Jämtland
 Selina latinskt
 Selma keltiskt
 Serafia hebreiskt
 Sestrid sidoform till Estrid; vanligast i Sydsverige
 Sibylla latinskt
 Signe nordiskt
 Signild nordiskt
 Sigrid nordiskt
 Sina förekom i Skåne, sannolikt en form av Signe
 Sissa smekform för Cecilia; vanligast i Skåne
 Sissela försvenskad form av Cecilia; dialektal form: Sissel
 Sofia grekiskt
 Stina kortform av Kristina (men även Justina med flera)
 Sunniva latinisering av ett fornengelskt namn
 Susanna grekisk form av ett hebreiskt namn
 Svea svenskt
 Svenborg nordiskt (svenskt); vanligast i Småland och Skåne
 Tekla grekiskt
 Teresia latinsk form av spanska Teresa, möjligen av iberiskt ursprung
 Teodora feminin form av Teodor
 Tilla sannolikt kortform av Ottilia eller Ottiliana; förekom i Dalarna
 Tolla kortform av fornsvenska Torlof; vanligast i Sydsverige
 Tona nordiskt; förekom i Bohuslän
 Tora nordiskt, kortform av kvinnonamn på Tor-
 Torborg nordiskt
 Tova nordiskt, kortform av kvinnonamn som Torfrid, Torvi, Torvar
 Trina kortform av Katarina
 Truen sydsvenskt
 Tullia feminin form av ett romerskt släktnamn, även använt som latinsk form av Tolla
 Tyra latinisering av Tyre
 Tyre nordiskt, ursprungligen Tyrvi; vanligast i Skåne
 Tören variant av Tyre; förekom i Värend och Göinge
 Ulla smekform av Ulrika
 Ulrika feminin form av Ulrik
 Una nordiskt (men också feminin form av Uno)
 Ursilla variant av Ursula; i Jämtland ibland skrivet Årsil
 Ursula latinskt; variant: Ursilla
 Valborg tyskt
 Vendela kortform av tyska namn på Wendel-
 Veronika latinskt
 Vibeke danskt (ursprungligen lågtyskt) namn; sidoform Viveka
 Viktoria latinskt
 Vilhelmina latinskt
 Virginia latinskt
 Viveka sidoform till Vibeke
 Åsa nordiskt; vanligast i Västsverige
 Ärngunna fornsvenskt; förekom i Småland
 Ödgun fornsvenskt; förekom i Värend
 Ödgärd fornsvenskt; vanligast i mellersta Norrland
 Öllegård danskt