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Many historians consider the Huns the first Turkic people mentioned in history. References in Chinese sources to peoples called the Xiong-Nu (Hsiung-nu) go back to 1200 BC. Their Xiong (匈) rulers, first mentioned as a family in 1766 BC in the story of Chunwei and the fall of the Xia dynasty, may be the ancestors of the later, better-known (to western scholars) Huns, though not all scholars agree. Korean legend takes the stand that an alliance of northern Altaic tribes under a "Huan" ruler from 7193 BC pre-dated the establishment of China.
A group called the European Huns and led by Attila the Hun is considered, with little certainty, to be the western extension of the royal Xiong family centered around Karaganda. Establishment of the first Hun state is one of the first well-documented appearances of the culture of horseback migration in history. These tribespeople achieved superiority over their rivals (most of them highly cultured) by their splendid state of readiness and amazing mobility. According to traditional Hungarian history, the Huns, Sabirs, Magyars, and Avars were all part of the same people.
Attila's European Huns, like the eastern Xiong's 'Nu' (奴 i.e. slaves) formed from groups of unrelated tributary peoples. In the European case Alans, Slavs and especially Gothic tribes all united under the Hun family military elite. Subsequently the term "Huns" became one of the derogatory terms for Germans (see, for example, "Kraut"). Allied Forces during World War I and World War II commonly used the name, but this usage has declined recently.
The earliest reference in Chinese sources to a people called the Xiong-Nu (Hsiung-nu) goes back to early 12th century BC, in writings about the campaign by King Wuding (武丁 wu3 ding1) of the Shang Dynasty against the Gui Fang 鬼方 (gui3 fang1) tribe, which is regarded as a name of one of the Huns' vassal Nu (奴) tribes. Some vague archeological sources support this account, but await verification. Bronze incriptions and oracle turtle-back bones from polytheistic worship prove the historical existence of the campaign but the Gui Fang did not necessarily equate to the core Hun clan per se.
Many scholars identify the Xiong Nu Xiong with the Huns because of similar descriptions of their appearance and living habits. (more input here....) Other scholars, confusing the Xiong with their Nu serf and vassal tribes, find differences. Still others argue that any common appearance and habits also appear among various other tribes residing on the Mongolian steppes, rather than identifying characteristics specific to the Xiong and the Huns. Nevertheless, all agree that the two peoples shared aspects that are more than a coincidence.
With the exception of the 43-118 AD "North-South" feud, the Hun dynasty survived as a fairly tightly-knit political power until the 4th C. when the NU(奴) tribes decisively threw off the yoke of the Xiong dynasty. Whether increasing squabbling amongst the Xiong dynasty caused their subjects to lose faith in them, or some other cause occurred, Hun unity came to an end. The rock was shattered and clans claiming the Hun name (Hunnoi, Chionites, Choni, Xiong etc.) dispersed as nothing more than piratical raiding bands. They appear south in Persia (the Xiyon camel tribes -- Chionites -- in AD 320, also known as Red Huns), while a portion remained east in China (the Xiong deer people), and finally in one last brilliant flare west in Russia (the Hun horse tribes in AD 360).
The Hua managed to succeed to the Hun heritage in a campaign which spread from Bactria to Europe. After the failure of Xiong's Zhou county the influence of the Hua dragon tribe started to expand. The influence of the northern deer-people retreated north up the Yenisei as the Hua chased a western portion of the Hunnoi (Alchon/Alchoni often called "White Huns" and confused with Hephthalites) into what is present-day Uzbekistan in the late 4th century, while the easternmost branch would later found the Xiong's last eastern dynasty Xia (407-431). The colors of the European Persian, Bactrian and Chinese Hun tribes may have something to do with their flank designations. Though apparently fleeing China from the Hua in the mid-4th century, later the Huns' Alchon component are recorded as in union with them (Varkun) against the western-most branch.
By 460 the Hua had begun to take over Central Eurasia. The Yuezhi's Hephthal family had become their ruling clan in Xinjiang by 507 and sometime during his rule (507-531) the Hua, now a unit with the Choni, left under Sarosios's father to conquer the Hunnic dregs in the West, leaving their Hephthalite brethren to fend off Juan Juan advances alone and relocate their seat of power with the Indian branch.
After this the Huns as a power unit disappear from history, though certain nations and noble families of Turanian origin continued to carry variations of the name into the present.
1.1 1st Dynasty
c. 1800-1766BC Chungvi/Chunwei/Sunni mythology places
? - 270? BCE Kia?
270 - 240? Tangriqut?
240 - 209 頭曼(Tumen/Tu-Man Tengriqut)
209 - 174 Mo-Tun/MAO-TUN/Batur Tengriqut/(冒顿)
174 - 161 Ki-Ok/Kokkhan/(老上)
161 - 126 Chun-Chin/Kunkhan/(車臣)
126 - 114 I-Tsin-Xien/El'chishye/伊稚邪
114 - 105 Wu-Wey/Uvey/烏維
105 - 102/1 Wu-Shi-Lu-Ir/Uyshilar/烏師盧
102/1 - 101/0 Zhou-Li-Hu/Kulighu/(口句)黎湖
101/0 - 96 Chu-Di-Hu/Qutighu/且提侯
96 Possible unknown ruler
96 - 85 Hu-Lu-Ku/Hulugu/狐鹿姑
85 - 68 Huandi/Chuangdi/壺衍提
68 - 60 Hsu-Lu and Chuan-Chou/Shuluy Qanghuy/虛閭權渠
60 - 58 Uyanquti/握衍(月句)提
58 - 31 Ho-Han-Yeh/Khukhenye I/呼韓邪 opposed by...
Bosiuytang-Zhuki (West) 58 - 56 and...
Huge (Northwest) 58 - 57 and...
Cheli (Southwest) 58 - 56 and...
Uji (Northwest) 58 - 57 then..
Zhunzhen (West) 56 - 54 and...
Zhizhi-Guduhu (East) 55 - 47
31 - 20 Fu-Chu-Ley-Ju-Di/Pozhulonuti/復株累若提
20 - 12 Su-Xie-Ju-Di/Shuzhunoti/搜諧若提
12 - 8 Che-Ya-Ju-Di/Qiyanoti/車牙若提 opposed by...
Ulunoti/烏累若提 11 - 10
8 BCE - 13 CE Wu-Zhou-Liu-Ju-Di/Uchilonoti/烏珠留若提
13 - 18 Wu-Ley-Ju-Di/Ulunoti/烏累若提 (restored)
18 - 46 HuTuIrShiTaoGaoJuDi/GhuduarshiDavganoti/呼都而尸道皋若提 opposed by...
Xiuybudan 18 - 19 then...
Udatqu 21 - 46
46 Wu-Ta-Ti-Ho 烏達提侯
46 - 48 Pu-Nu/Panu/蒲奴
From 48CE, the Hsiung-Nu began a North-South feud which lasted until 98CE
Rulers of the Northern (or "Western") Xiong-Nu:
48 - 83 Pu-Nu/Panu/蒲奴
83 - 84 Sanmolo Otzi/San-Mu-Lu-Tzi
84 - 89 Ulugh/Yu-Liu
89 - 91/3? Yu-Chou-Chien
91CE The Xionu/Xiuno/Hunnoi first appeared in the west near the Caspian Sea as a result of 班超 PanChao's campaign.
98-118 Finghay (united North & South) opposed WanSiJuTi
Rulers of the Southern (or Eastern) Xiong-Nu:
48-56/55 Hu-Han-Sie-Di/Khukhenye II/呼韓邪 (第二)
56/57-59 I-Fa-Yu-Di/Ilgha Uluti/伊伐於慮提
63 Kuchi Qilindi/丘除車林提
63-85 HuYehShihChouHuTi/GhushiShisu Quti/湖邪尸逐侯提
85-88 I-Tu-Yi-Lu/Iltu Uluti/伊屠於閭提
88-93 Xiu-Lan-Shi-Hu-Di/Shulan Shisu Quti/休蘭尸逐侯提
94-98 TindushsuQuti/TingTuShiJuHuTi/亭獨尸逐侯提 deposed by...
98-118 Finghey (Panghu?) opposed by...
Wanchi Shisu Quti/Wan-Si-Ju-Ti/萬氏尸逐侯提 from 98CE
Hereafter, the Western/Northern tangriquts are no-more & the Eastern Tangriquts take over the whole empire. Wanchi Shisu Quti inherited Finghey's united empire in 118 but it was never what it used to be.
118-124 Wanchi Shisu Quti/Wan-Si-Ju-Ti/萬氏尸逐侯提
124-127/128 Wu-Chi-Hu-Shi-Jo/Uzhqushsu Quti/烏稽侯尸逐提
127/128-140/142 Chu-Chi-Ju-Shi-Ju-Ju-Chin/Kutino Shisu Quti/去特若尸逐就
140 - 143 Chu-Xiu
Some sources indicate that in 140 AD, after Kutino Shisu Quti committed suicide, Tengriqut was not elected and the Hun throne remained vacant till 143 AD.
143-147 Hu-Lan-Ju-Shi-Ju-Ju-Chin/Ghoranno Shisu Quti/呼蘭若尸逐就
147-172/177 I-Ling-Shi-Chou-Chin/Illin Shisu Quti/伊陵若尸逐就
172-177/178 Utno Shisu Quti/屠特若尸逐就
188-195 Di-Chi-Shi-Chou-Hu/Qizi Shisu Quti/特至尸逐侯
215-290 Xiongnu partitioned into 5 local tribes
290 Xiongnu reunified
Liu Yuan-Hai (刘元海) or Liu Yuan (劉淵)..290 Beihan Emperor 304-309 d.310
309-310 Liu He (刘和)
310-318 Liu Tsung (劉聰)
318 Liu Ts'an (劉粲)
318-329 Liu Yao (劉曜) opposed by....
319-333 Kao Tsu (高祖)
333-334 Hai-Yang Wang (海陽王)
334-349 T'ai Tsu (太祖)
349 Shih Shih (石世)
349 Shih Tsun (石遵)
349-350 Shih Chien (石鑒)
350 Shih Chih (石祗)
350-352 Ran Min (冉閔) or Shih Min (石閔)
The Hua & Xiong divided the Huns and drove most of the remaining Huns westwards out of China during their expansion. Kama was a legendary ancestor-King, mentioned in Eastern Hunnic sources, particularly among those who formed the Altyn Oba Horde. There is no one among the Hsiung rulers whose name sounds much like "Kama Tarkhan", but if he existed, he might have been the otherwise unnamed chief who took the Huns westward, into the Ukrainian steppes. He may have been the ruler of Alchoni who pushed the Kidarite Huns into India. His realm may therefore have spread from the Ukraine to Bactria. Any last remnants of the Huns east of the Hua in China managed to raise their heads again from 407 - 431 as the Hun Xia dynasty before coming under the Juan Juan. They (the Deer) later absorbed a Turkic (Blue Wolf) influence and later emerged as the Mongols. Interestingly some Hunnic vocabulary documented by the Chinese still occurs in Japanese while Hungarian allegedly has some words in common with Xia.
352-? Kama Tarkhan
fl. ?-370 Balamber
fl. 370's-380s Alypbi
c. 390 ?-c. 411 Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns)
? -412 Donatus (Khan of the Eastern <Black Sea> Huns)
c. 411 Charaton
? - ? Octar
fl. 432 Ruga
c. 437-c. 444 Bleda with...
c. 437-453 Attila (Idil)
453-c. 455 Ellac
fl. c. 457 Tuldila
?-469 Dengizich with...
?- < 469 Hernach
fl. late 5thC. Tingiz with...
fl. late 5thC. Belkermak
fl. late 490s Djurash
fl. early 500s Tatra
? Boyan Chelbir
fl. early500s - mid500s Sandilkh (Khan of the Utrigurs)
Division into Utrigur, east Don, and Kutrigur, west Don, hordes
fl. 560s Zabergan (Khan of the Kutrigurs)
c. 565-c. 600 Bayan 1 (of the Avars)
Chaotic conditions followed the rise of Avar power in Europe, and the time of the Huns came to a close. Whether the Onoghur were truely a Hun, Bolgar, or proto-Magyar rather than Avar reign remains a matter of debate. However it is from their name that the name Hungary derives, allowing some space for their inclusion in the list of Hun Dynasties.