Etruskan and Hittite mythologies.


In Etruria, in sacred city the god (whose name is transferred differently: Velthuna, Vertumna? Velthina) was esteemed. Sometimes him is considered as chthonic form of Tin or the god of a nature circulation (Nemirovsky, 1983). The Romans inform an interesting history, as a certain demon in the wolf image wanted to escape from the underground world and to devastate vicinities of sacral Etruscan town, but hardly he has raised a cover of well as immediately was tired out back. (Raschinger E, 1992, vol. 1, p. 44). Romans names a demon of Olt (Olta), but Raschinger believes that in Etruscan this name was Veltha , that can be identically mentioned chthonic Vertumn, 'the main god of Etruria'. Relieves on some funeral urns give fines illustrations to this myth to one of the few it is clean Etruscan plots, known to us in writing. We see a monster that is getting out from well. More often it looks like the shaggy wolf though one relief shows it with a smooth body and as though a horse head. There are variants, that depict Olt/Veltha in an image of the person with a head of the wolf and even is simple in the wolf mask. The monster is surrounded with people which are taking place in the strongest excitement. They try to jostle it back in well or to constrain, having covered with a circuit. One person has already fallen Veltha victim. On one variant it is possible to see the most popular Etruscan goddess Vanth , messengeress of death, likes Greek furies, and typologically - Scandinavian Valkyrie , Slavic vilas, Baltic veles and etc. (Genetically all of them occur from the Great Goddess).

The given plot puts before us some questions. On the one hand, the root 'vel' connected with the world dead, belongs to the God of Earth Powers. Besides Vertumn was the main god of this city (that is the main god of priests). With another - the wolf traditionally is the opponent of the God of Earth Powers and is connected with the God of Thunder. And the motive of chaining of the wolf by means circuit likes the Scandinavian myth about World Wolf Fenrir. Probably we deal with inversion when contrasts converge - the God of Earth Powers in Etruscan myth got features of the wolf, and the God of Thunder in the Scandinavian and Hittite myths has driven about on a chariot with the rams and the bull accordingly. For the benefit of that Veltha is the God of Earth Powers, speaks also the image on Etruscan cista from Preneste. The Minerva (the Etruscans esteemed her also) which whether helps, whether prevents the naked baby to leave at the weapon from an amphora. Near to the baby it is written 'Mars'. About Mars/Maris it was already spoken in connection with Scythian culture. Now it is necessary to add, that the Roman Mars was considered also as the god of arising year (Vertumn was gods nature circulation). There is also small winged figure, reminding role Vanth on one of the relieves representing a history about Olt.