copyright © 2000 by John Stojko
This paper deals with the most recent decipherment of ancient Lydian inscriptions. The key which made it possible to indentify Lydian letters was a single stele inscribed in both Lydian and Greek alphabets. Based on the present decipherment, the ancient Lydian language appears to be indentical to Etruscan, which survives as the present-day Ukrainian. The subject matter of the inscriptions is religious, and it is also related to the main theme of Voynich Manuscript.
historian Herodotus wrote that Etruscan were Lydians, who immigrated to
to the Linguists the Lydian language is Indo-European. My decipherment also
shows that the Etruscan language is basically the same as a present day
Ukrainian, hence it is also Indo-European. If Herodotus' statement, that the
Lydian migrated to
To continue on the path of decipherment in a logical way, and to check if there is any truth in Herodotus' statement I began to look for Lydian writings.
In the book "Extinct Languages by Johannes Friedrich" on page 110 I found bilingual inscription in Greek and Lydian alphabets.
The Lydian alphabet is derived from Phoenician and Etruscan, therefore after close examination; I was able to read one name on the grave inscription in Lydian. Because the inscription is apparently bilingual, the name of dead person should read the samein Greek and Lydian alphabets. And it does.
In my previous writing I stated that the dead person name in both languages is HEBRAT BARABASH. Subsequently I made several attempts to verify this original decipherment.
Publication of the American Society for the excavation of
examining these additional samples of Lydian writings from
point I am sure that Lydian alphabet consists of consonants only, and should be
read from right to left, like Phoenician or Hebrew. My decipherment of the
Greek alphabet from
When I come to the point in my Lydian decipherment where I began to read and understand what is written, I was disappointed. The subject in the Lydian inscriptions is religious, and it is limited in descriptions and use of different words.
The Lydian language is the same as Etruscan (Ukrainian) and it is understandable to enyone who speaks Ukrainian fluently.
to the inscriptions two religious factions occupied the site at
In spite of the shortcomings in these religious writings, there is one revealing fact in them about the prevailing religious differences and on going dispute. Also, the Lydian inscriptions will help understand the one-sided writings found in the Voynich Manuscript, deciphered and described in 1978 in my book "Letters To Gods Eye". The main personalities in Voynich Manuscript OKO, SUS, MANIA, KOZA and KOZARS (KHOZARS) from one religious faction and ORA from the other faction, also appear in these Lydian inscriptions.
inscriptions whether they are written by Ora or Kozar side use the same
alphabet and language. On the other hand bilingual inscription written in different
alphabets, but it seems to be written in the same language, Ukrainian, as can
be seen from my decipherment. Also, it seems that some of the inscriptions in
Greek alphabet were written later and at that time some letters were modified,
or added to the alphabet, which was used at the time of the dispute. I am
basing my statement on comparison of the Lydian version to Greek alphabet not
Lydian inscriptions in several places reference is made to the town (place) of
BBL which I deciphered as BABLI. But BBL could also be deciphered as BIBLI,
BYBLI, BYBLE. May be BYBLI is the same place, which Greek call
When I deciphered the whole Voynich Manuscript, I was wondering why Ora never wrote about his own religion to compare it to the Kozars religion. The Lydian inscriptions, in skimpy way, show why.
Both religions come from the same source, and from common religious customs, which at that time of dispute the customs were known to everyone. The only difference, as is stated in Voynich Manuscript was how the BOZIA SUS (Baby God Sus) come to this world. On several Lydian steles this difference is stated which substantiates the Voynich Manuscript.
To explain the basic belief, which is common to both sides in dispute, I will etymologically derive the meaning of Ukrainian word ROZUMITY = to understand, which incorporates the word UM.
In the past, Ukrainian language uses to be phonetic: not any more. Let me break the word ROZUMITY into phonetic syllables RO-Z-UM-I-TY. The meaning of the syllables is:
RO = to open
Here are few words showing how the syllable RO is used in Ukrainian language.
RO-WY or RO-VY = ditches, Hence, RO = opening, W or V = in.
RO-T = mouth.
VO-RO-TA = gate, that is, it opens like the mouth.
Z = from within, out of, of
UM = knowledge, wisdom, mind. (U is pronounced as double "O" in room, hence OOM=UM)
I = and.
TY = you.
RO-Z-UM-I-TY = open from knowledge (UM) and you.
This can be compared to the operation of present-day computer and can be restated, open file stored in memory for this information.
But UM is not physical matter hence it is not perishable. At that time ancients believed that from the day one is born to the time one is dead everything what we see, think or do is stored in our UM and in Heaven this information is transparent to the person and every one who wonts to know it.
In Lydian writing is shown that Ora and Sus were able to read what is stored in our UM on earth and also in Heaven. Their communality in beliefs ends due to the following difference:
Ora believed in God Giver (Dazh Boh) religion and it seems that he himself did not pretend to be God.
Sus on the other hand seems to pretend to be Gods descendant because God Oko confirmed his jurisdiction on earth in Heaven. Ora like Sus instructed the soul of the individual to learn its assigned activsty and to understand it "during and after the dead".
After accomplishment of the questions that were presented to the soul, Ora urged the soul to remember these questions and to make more enquiries. Sus acts likewise but then he accuses (blames, punishes) the soul for this or that action and reserves the option to examine soul's UM for more erroneous actions. It seems that for followers of Sus soul's belief in God Giver and in religious leader Ora was an unforgivable sin.
The inscriptions do not tell of what color was Oras garb.
The color of Sus' garb was white for those who were blameless before him. Apperently the color of his heavenly garb enabled him to read the soul's UM and to see the errors in the past life of the soul.
Ora as well as Sus were teaching that the past life of the individual determines soul's future destiny. In many inscriptions both religious fractions urge the individual soul to learn (study) during and after a dead. I have given the above brief explanation so anyone who wish to study Lydian inscriptions in detail will be familiar with their meanings in advance. The remaining statements in the inscriptions are self-explanatory. Below is given table of alphabets.
NOTE: To following five steps were taken to present sequence of my decipherment.
STEP II. Vowels are added (in lower case) to consonants in STEP I.
STEP III. Etruscan inscription from STEP II transcribed to form sentences in Ukrainian.
(This step shows original Ukrainian at the time the inscriptions were written)
STEP IV. Etruscan inscription from STEP III in current Ukrainian.
STEP V. Etruscan inscriptions from STEP IV translated into English.
[O recurso de barra de links nćo estį disponķvel nesta Web]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The boundaries of Lydia varied across the centuries. It was first bounded by Mysia Major, Caria, Phrygia and Ionia. Later on, it grew to contain all the land between the Halys river and the Aegean sea. The empire's name became synonymous with wealth and Sardis was renowned as a beautiful city.
It is also one of the first countries to make coins.
The name Lydia is derived from Lydus, a king of Męonia.
Selected Monarchs of Lydia with date of accession.
Civilizzazione Di Lydian
Lydians era una gente occidentale di Anatolian distinta dalla lingua e dalle
tradizioni culturali. Alcune funzioni della lingua di Lydian (un sottogruppo
palaic-Anatolian di indoeuropeo) e della coltura erano relative o
compartecipi con quelle dell'altra gente di Anatolian come il Carians ed il
Display of Lydian architectural tiles: modern reconstruction from examples of the 6th century B.C.
© Archaeological Exploration of Sardis/Harvard University 1996
belongs to New Anatolian languages, derived from Old Anatolian - Hittite, Luwian and Palaic. When the Hittite Empire fell, Anatolian
city-states started a new epoch of Indo-European settlers of
Lydian was inherited directly from Hittite, but has a lot of its own new features. Lydian phonetics is more complicated: nasal vowels [a], [e] appeared; consonant system has several palatals for [s], [t], [d], [l], [n] very widely used. Palatals came from the combination of i + a consonant.
Lydian morphology also differs somehow from Hittite. Nouns are declined in pronominal declension, Hittite noun declension was almost completely lost. Accusative case is being replaced by dative in the meaning of direct object of the verb. Some verbal forms have endings derived not from Hittite same forms but from participles (for example, 3rd person plural has -l ending) or other verbal nouns.
Lydian has a wide choice of prefixes and particles with practically every word. Sometimes a personal pronoun has 3 particles before it, all of them meaning just emphasis.
Linguistic science has not yet learned much about Lydian, but the language is obviously Indo-European, and a lot of words represent their IE origin. Soon we will publish the Historical Lydian Grammar in our Indo-European Grammars section for everyone interested in Indo-European languages on the Web.
Ancient Lydia (Maeonia)
By Roger Norman / Turkish Daily News
This is the second
Bluffer's Guide, and takes over more or less where the first one ended, at the
close of the Anatolian Bronze Age and the time of the upheavals of the 13th and
12th centuries B.C. caused by largescale migrations in the Aegean region. The
end of the 13th century saw the end of the Hittite Empire that had dominated
Anatolian history for 500 years.
When to date the end of the Iron Age is a matter of taste, since in some ways it can be said to be still continuing. For the purposes of this guide, the end of the 6th century B.C. has been somewhat arbitrarily taken as the terminal date, on the grounds that the 5th century onwards can better be considered under the heading of Anatolia in classical times. We are thus dealing approximately with the period 1200 to 500 B.C. As in the Bronze Age, the center of power in the region remains the Near East, first in the shape of the vast Assyrian Empire of Sargon II, afterwards with the emergence of the Medes and Persians. Phrygia, and then Lydia, were the dominant Anatolian powers, and Greek cities were starting to appear on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, and, later, on the Black Sea. Cyrus the Great died in 530 B.C. and Croesus of Lydia around the same time.
ARMENIANS -- A tribe, possibly of PHRYGIAN origin, which gradually occupied the region of URARTIA towards the end of the 7th century. The position of a kingdom sandwiched between the MEDES, the ASSYRIANS and whoever was the dominant power in Anatolia proper guaranteed a chequered career for the first Armenians, and for most of their successors. Armenia was to be ruled successively by Medes, Persians, Seleucids, Romans etc. etc.
ASSYRIANS -- After a period of relative decline in the 12th and 11th centuries, the Assyrian Empire not only recovered but expanded rapidly, especially during the reign of Sargon II (722-706), so that by the end of the 8th century B.C., Assyria comprised the whole of present day Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Palestine and extensive territories in present day Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia. Assyrian kings even ruled in Egypt for 20 years in the mid 7th century. The empire collapsed with impressive speed, however, during the final decades of the 7th century, defeated by a coalition of MEDES and Babylonians. The Assyrian capital Nineveh fell in 612.
CIMMERIANS -- One of the "destroyers" of historical record and, like others before and after them, originating from somewhere in the broad steppes of southern Russia. Swept into Anatolian history at the end of the 8th century, first harrying the URARTIANS, then destroying the Phrygian capital GORDIUM in 695 and burning Lydian SARDIS 50 years later. Always described as historians as advancing in "hordes", technically an anachronism, since the word horde comes from the Turkish <ITALIK ordu ITALIK> meaning army.
CROESUS -- Lydian king who reigned c. 560 to 547 B.C. Like the Phrygian Midas, a byword for great wealth, possibly because the LYDIANS were the first to mint coins. Croesus was the subject of the famous dialogue with Solon related by Herodotus. In reply to Croesus' leading question "Who is the most fortunate of men?", Solon irritatingly replied by naming various unknown and defunct Greeks, making the point that no man could be called happy until he was dead. It was also Croesus who was fooled by the ambiguous reply of the Delphic oracle -- "If you attack, you will destroy a great nation". It turned out to be his own, and Croesus became an (honored) captive of the Persian king Cyrus. Croesus has come down to us as a very human and rather sympathetic character, thanks largely to Herodotus. History proper starts somewhere here, one might say.
CYBELE -- The chief Phrygian divinity and their version of the Anatolian mother goddess. She was suckled by wild creatures as an infant, ministered to as a deity by castrated priests and her cult was apparently characterized by frenzied orgies. A symbol of fertility, often depicted as pregnant, sometimes many-breasted. Atys was her omprehensively defeated (although somewhat unfairly, some would say, because Cyrus apparently used the smell of his pack camels to deter the Lydian cavalry) in 547 B.C. Sardis was taken and Lydia became a Persian satrapy.
MEDES -- An Iranian tribe who first appear as the Mada and start threatening the power of Assyria in the 7th century. Together with Babylonian forces they destroyed Nineveh in 612 and soon afterwards took control of URARTIA. They were later defeated by the Persian King Cyrus and were incorporated into the empire of the PERSIANS. The Greeks tended to refer to the Persians as Medes and Cyrus as "the Mede". In the later Persian Empire, the Medes were associated with the Magi, a sacerdotal caste who followed the teachings of Zoroaster (Zarathustra).
MIDAS -- Known as Mita to
the Assyrians and Egyptians. Famous in legend for the "Midas touch"
which turned everything, even his food, to gold. Yet oddly there was no gold
found in the immense burial mound near GORDIUM that has come to be known as
Midas' tomb. There were however, a large number of wonderful bronze cauldrons
and other vessels which can now be seen in the
MOPSUS -- A Greek by the
name of Mopsus has the honor of being the very first figure of Greek legend to
be authenticated as a historical personality. (Remember that there is still no
<ITALIK proof ITALIK> that there were ever such people as Agamemnon or
Achilles.) Legend said that one Mopsus wandered the Anatolian peninsula after
the fall of
NEO-HITTITES -- Remnants of
the Hittites, mixed with Hurrians, Hattians and others, who occupied a series
of city states in the northern regions of present day
PERSIANS -- An Iranian
people who probably arrived in the region of present day
PHRYGIANS -- Federation of tribes who moved into Anatolia from Eastern Europe during the last century of the Bronze Age and who established a powerful kingdom centered on GORDIUM which included Troy and Hierapolis. Replaced the Hittite Empire as the dominant force in central Anatolia, building modest walled towns on the ruins of the old Hittite cities -- at Bogazkoy, Alaca Hoyuk, Kultepe and elsewhere. Came up against Sargon II of ASSYRIA in the 8th century and were wiped out by the fierce CIMMERIANS at the beginning of the 7th century. Phrygian inscriptions remain unintelligible and the reputation the Phrygian people have left behind them makes strange reading. Stubborn, effeminate, servile and voluptuous according to various Greek readers, they were famous as makers of grave and solemn music and also for the wearing of a peculiar conical cap which was later worn by freed Roman slaves and thus became a symbol of liberty to the French revolutionaries of 1789. Phrygia was also known among Greeks as a land of fabulous wealth (see MIDAS).Their Chief divinity was CYBELE.
SARDIS -- Lydian capital, situated in the broad and fertile valley of the Gediz Cayi. There's not much left now of the Lydian city, although American excavators claim to have found the remains of the first ever mint (see CROESUS). Ten kilometers to the north lies Bin Tepe, the Lydian necropolis, where there are scores of burial mounds dating from the great age of the Lydian kingdom. The largest of these, the Tomb of Alyattes (father of Croesus), took ten minutes to ride around according to the nineteenth century traveller W.J. Hamilton.
URARTIANS -- Possibly a Hurrian people, since their language is closely related. Settled the area around Lake Van and established a kingdom that included Mt. Ararat and the headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates. First mentioned in ASSYRIAN texts in the 13th century B.C., reached their zenith three or four centuries later when they built a characteristic series of massive hill fortresses in the region. Came into conflict with the Assyrian Empire in the 8th century B.C. and disappeared from history somewhat mysteriously in the 6th century at which period they were replaced by the ARMENIANS. Urartia is sometimes known as the Kingdom of Van, or the Vannic kingdom.